Arginelle is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Arginelle.

B Vitamins (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid)

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Baily, S. E. and Ayling, J. E. 2009. The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 106(35): 15424-15429. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902072106. URL: (accessed 5/14/2012).

Baker, H., et al. 1975. Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamin and vitamin B6. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28, 1377–1380.

Bart, S. Sr., et al. 2012. Folate status and homocysteine levels during a 24-week oral administration of folate-containign oral contraceptive: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, US-based multicenter study. Contraception. 85(1): 42-50. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/15/2012).

Batra, V., et al. 2010. Enhanced one-carbon flux towards DNA methylation: Effect of dietary methyl supplements against gamma-radiation-induced epigenetic modicationas. Chem Biol Interac., 183(3): 425-33. URL (abstract): (Accessed 5/15/2012).

Bird, L. M., et al. 2011. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet A., 155A(12): 2956-63. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34297. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Cagnacci, A., et al. 2009. High-dose short-term folate administration modifies ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. A placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63(10): 1266-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.

Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

Davis, B., et al. 1982. Enhanced absorption of oral vitamin B12 from a resin ascorbate administered to normal subjects. Manip. Physiol. Ter., 5, 123–127.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Fava, M., and Mischoulon, D. 2009. Folate in depression: efficacy, safety, differences in formulations, and clinical issues. J Clin Psychiatry. 70 Supple 5: 12-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Godfrey, P. S., et al. 1990. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet, 336(8712): 392-5. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Greenberg, J. A., and Bell, S. J. 2011. Multivitamin Supplementation During Pregnancy: Emphasis on Folic Acid and L-Methylfolate. Rev Obstet Gynecol., 4 (3-4): 126-7. URL: (accessed 5/14/2012).

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305

Kelly, P., et al. 1997. Unmetabolized folic acid in serum: acute studies in subjects consuming fortified food and supplements. Am J Clin Nutr., 65(6): 1790-5. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.

Lamers, Y., et al. 2006. Red blood cell folate concentrations increase more after supplementation with [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate than with folic acid in women of childbearing age. Am J Clin Nutr. 84(1): 156-61.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

McCormick, D. 1975. Biotin. Nutr. Rev., 33, 97–102.

Meshkin, B., Blum, K. 2007. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics. Drug Metab Lett., 1(1): 55-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40, 212-218.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.

Pietrzik, K., et al. 2010. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet., 49(8): 535-48. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Scambi, C., et al. 2009. Preliminary evidence for cell membrane amelioration in children with cystic fibrosis by 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation: a single arm trial. PLoS One. 4(3):e4782. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/15/2012).

Sharp, L., Little, J. 2004. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol., 159(5): 423-43. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/14/2012).

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.


Basha, M., et al. 2009. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 297(5): R1486-R1493. URL: (accessed 8/29/2013).

Buchman, A.L., et al. 2001. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral butrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 25(5): 260-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/29/2013).

Deuster, P.A., et al. 2002. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil Med. 167 (12): 1020-5. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/29/2013).

Guerrerio, A.L., et al. 2011. Oral choline supplementation in children with intestinal failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 53(1): 115-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Giuliano, F., et al. 2002. Neurophysiology and Pharmacology of Female Genital Sexual Response. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 28:1 (101-121). URL (abstract): (accessed 8/29/2013).

Innis, S.M., et al. 2007. Choline-related supplements improve abnormal plasma methinine-homocysteine metabolites and glutathione status in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 85(3): 702-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Jiang, X., et al. 2013. A higher maternal choline intake among third-trimester pregnant women lowers placental and circulating concentrations of the antiangiogenic factor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). FASEB J. 27(3): 1245-53. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Penry, J.T. & Manore, M.M. 2008. Choline: an important micronutrient for maximal endurance-exercise performance? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 18(2): 191-203. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/29/2013).

Ross, R.G., et al. 2013. Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology relate to later schizophrenia risk. Am H Psychiatry. 170(3): 290-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Sidhu, N., et al. Oral choline supplementation for postoperative pain. Br. J Anaesth. 111(2):249-55. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Wallace, J.M., et al. 2012. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomized, controlled trail in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 108(7): 1264-71. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

West, A.A., et al. 2013. Choline intake influences phosphatidylcholine DHA enrichment in nonpregnat women but not in pregnant women in the third trimester. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(4): 718-27. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.29.2013).

Zeisel, S.H. 2004. Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Coll Nutr. (6 Supple): 621S-626S. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/29/2013).

Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

Alarcon-Aguilsar, F.J., et al. 2002. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. Phytother Res. 16(4): 383-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Anderson, T. & Fogh, J. 2001. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients. J Hum Nutr Diet. 14(3): 243-50. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Bezzara, A.G., et al. 2013. Effects of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa and Heteropterys tomentosa extracts on hippocampal apoptosis of aged rats. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 11(2): 163-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Estrada-Reyes, R., et al. 2009. Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males. J Ethnopharmacol. 123 (3): 423-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Harrold, J.A., et al. 2013. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice. Appetite. 62: 84-90. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2006. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. J Sex Marital Ther. 32(5): 369-78. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Ido, T.Y., et al. 2001. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther. 27(5): 541-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Sarris, J., et al. 2013. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part1: a review of preclinical studies. CNS Drugs. 27(3): 207-19. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Taha, M.M., et al. 2012. Gastroprotective activities of Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult. Revisited: Role of arbutin. J Ethnopharmacol. 141(1): 273-81. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Torres-Gonzalez, L., et al. 2011. Protective effect of four Mexican plants against CCI4-induced damage on the Huh7 human hepatoma cell line. Ann Hepatol. 20(1): 73-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).

Yakoot, M., et al. 2011. Effectiveness of a herbal formula in women with menopausal syndrome. Forsch Komplementmed. 18(5): 264-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.22.2013).


Eleutherococcus senticosus Monograph. Alternative Medicine Review. 11(2): 151-55. Thorne Research, Inc. URL: (accessed 10.30.2013).

Chen, T.S., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am J Chin Med. 36(6): 1209-17. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.30.2013).

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2004. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. (9): 69-73. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.21.2013).

Deyama, T., et al. 2001. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseg. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 22(12): 1057-70. URL: (accessed 11.07.2013).

Eschbach, L.F., et al. 2000. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 10(4): 444-51. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.21.2013).

Gaffney, B.T., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med Hypotheses. 56(5): 567-72. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.30.2013).

Gaffney, B.T., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleuthero senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 70(4): 431-42. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.31.2013).

Goulet, E.D. & Dionne, I.J. 2005. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 15(1): 75-83. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.21.2013).

Huang, L., et al. 2011. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Pharmazie. 66(2): 83-97. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.07.2013).

Huang, L.Z., et al. 2011. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus. J Ethnopharmacol. 133(1): 213-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.07.2013).

Hwang, Y.C., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.31.2013).

Kimura, Y. & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 95(2-3): 447-53. URL (abstract): (accessed 10/31/2013).

Kuo, J., et al. 2010. The effect of eight weeks of supplementation with Eleuthorococcus senticosus on endurance capacity and metabolism in human. Chin J Physiol. 53(2): 105-11. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.30.2013).

Panossian, A. & Wikman, G. 2009. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 4(3): 198-219. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.07.2013).

Schaffler, K., et al. 2013. No benefit adding eleutherococcus senticosus to stress management training in stress-related fatigue/weakness, impaired work or concentration, a randomized controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 46(5): 181-90. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.21.2013).

Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):248-58. PubMed PMID: 15190050. URL (abstract) (accessed 11.21.2013)

Smalinskiene, A., et al.

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2004. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):69-73. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.14.2013).

Kwan, C.Y., et al. 2004. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 May;369(5):473-80. Epub 2004 Apr 17. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.14.2013)

Fadzel Wong Chee Ping, et al. 2011. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment Indian J Med Res. 2011 January; 133(1): 96–102 URL (abstract): (accessed 11.14.2013)


Alizadeh, M., et al. 2012. Effect of L-arginine and selenium added to a hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes on cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with central obesity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab. 60(2): 157-68. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Allahdadi, K.J. URL: (accessed 8/30/2013).

Aung, H.H., et al. 2004. Alternative Therapies for Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction. Am J Chin Med. 32(2): 161-173. URL: (accessed 9/03/2013).

Beharry, R.K., et al. 2008. Restoration of female genital vasocongestive arousal responses in young and aged rats. J Sex Med. 5(4): 804-12. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Berman, J.R., et al. 1998. Effect of estrogen withdrawal on nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptosis in the rat vagina. Urology. 51(4): 650-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Berman, J.R., et al. 2000. Anatomy and physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction: classification, evaluation and treatment options. Eur Urol.38(1): 20-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013)/

Berman, J.R. 2005. Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. Int J Impo Res. 17: S44-S51. URL: (accessed 9/03/2013).

Bogdanski, P., et al. 2012. Effect of 3-month L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and tumor necrosis factor activity in patients with visceral obesity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16(6): 816-23. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Burnett, A.L. et al. 1997. Immunohistochemical description of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human clitoris. J Urol. 158(1): 75-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Caruso, S., et al. 2001. Premenopausal women affected by sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil: a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. BJOG. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Chilosi, A., et al. 2012. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 7:43. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Gianfrilli, D., et al. 2012. Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a neutraceutical approach to erectile dysfunction. Andrologia. 44 Suppl 1:600-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/30/2013).

Goldstein, I. & Berman, J.R. 1998. Vasculogenic female arousal dysfunction: vaginal engorgement and clitoral erective insufficiency syndromes. Int J Impot Res. 10 Suppl 2: S84-90. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2001. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther. 27(5): 541-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2006. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. J Sex Marital Ther. 32(5): 369-78. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Jabecka, A., et al. 2012. Oral L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild arterial hypertension and its effect on plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-citruline, L-arginine and antioxidant status. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16(12): 1665-74. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Kim, N.N., et al. 2004. Role of arginase in the male and female sexual arousal response. J Nutr. 134 (10 Supple): 2873S-2879S. URL: (accessed 8/30/2013).

Laan, E., et al. 1995. Assessment of female sexual arousal: response specificity and construct validity. Psychophysiology. 32(5): 476-85. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Laan, E. & Everaerd, W. 1998. Physiological measure of vaginal vasocongestion. Int J Import Res. 10 Supple 2: S107-10. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Leventhal, J.L. 1999. Management of Libido Problems in Menopause. Presented at the Conjoint Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Canadian Fertility and Andrology 32nd Annual Postgraduate Program, Toronto, Canada, 9/25-26, 1999. URL: (accessed 9/03/2013).

McKay, D. 2004. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev. 9(1): 4-16. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Meston, C.M. & Frohlich, P.F. 2000. The neurobiology of sexual function. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 57(11): 1012-30. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Meston, C.M. & Worcel, M. 2002. The effects of yohimbe plus L-arginine glutamate on sexual arousal and in postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder. Arch Sex Behav. 31(4): 323-32. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Monti, L.D., et al. 2012. Effect of long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 14(10):893-900. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ogungbemi, S.I., et al. 2013. L-arginine increase nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. Niger J Physiol Sci. 28(1): 45-50. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/30/2013).

Park, K., et al. 1997. Vasculogenic female sexual dysfunction: the hemodynamic basis for vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency. Int J Impot Res. 9(1): 27-37. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Park, K., et al. 1998. Sildenafil inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 in human clitoral corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 249(3):612-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Phillips, N. 2000. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Evaluation and Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 62(1): 127-136. URL: (accessed 9/03/2013).

Polycarpou, E., et al. 2013. Oral L-arginine supplementation and faecal calprotectin levels in very low birth weight neonates. J Perinatol. 33(2): 141-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ralph, A.P., et al. 2013. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS One. 8(8):e70032. URL: (accessed 8/30/2013).

Sarrel, P.M. 1998. Ovarian hormones and vaginal blood flow: using laser Doppler celocimetry to measure effects in a clinical trial of post-menopausal weomn. Int J Impot Res. 10 Suppl 2: S91-3. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Sydow, K., et al. 2003. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e) inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc Res. 57(1): 244-52. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).

Wu, Z., et al. 2012. Regulation of brown adipose tissue development and white fat reduction by L-arginine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 15(6): 529-38. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/03/2013).


Balick, M.J. & Lee, R. 2002. Maca: from traditional food crop to energy and libido stimulant. Altern Ther Health Med. 8(2): 96-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/09/2013).

Bogani, P., et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 104(3): 415-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/11/2013).

Brooks, N.A., et al. 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 15(6): 1157-62. URL (abstract): (accessed 9/11/2013).

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2001. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behavior in male rats independently from its actions on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 75(2-3): 225-9. URL (abstract oly (accessed 9/11/2013).

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Meston: Ginkgo: Genital responsiveness to testosterone:

Muira Puama

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