PMS Solution

Our PMS Solution is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of PMS Solution.

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.02.2010).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Ingraffea, A., Donohue, K., Wilkel, C., Falanga, V. 2007. Cutaneous vasculitis in two patients taking an herbal supplement containing black cohosh. J Am Acad Dermatol, 56 (5), S124-S126.

Iwanaga, A., Kusano, G., Warashina, T., Miyase, T. 2010. Phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of Cimicifuga simplex and Cimicifuga japonica. J Nat Prod, 73(4), 609-12. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): (accessed 10.17.2007).

Li, J. X., Yu, Z. Y. 2008. Cimicifugae rhizoma: from origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr Med Chem, 13(24), 2927-51. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.18.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).b

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.28.2007).

Schmid, D., Woehs, F., Svoboda, M., Thalhammer, T., Chiba, P., Moeslinger, T. 2009. Aqueous extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa and phenolcarboxylic constituents inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human whole blood. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 87(11), 963-72. URL(abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: (accessed 01.08.2010).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: (accessed 2.24.2011).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Yang, C. L., Chik, S. C., Li, J. C., Cheung, B. K., Lau, A. S. 2009. Identification of the bioactive constituent and its mechanisms of action in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human primary blood macrophages. J Med Chem, 52(21), 6707-15. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Burdock (Arctium lappa)

[No authors listed]. 2011. Burdock. University of Maryland Medical Center. (accessed 4/18/2012).

Chan, Y., et al. 2010. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Duvan C.I., et al. 2011. Oxidant/antioxidant status in premenstrual syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 283(2):299-304. Epub 2010 Jan 19. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Erdemoglu, N. et al. 2009. Estimation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus. J Ethnopharmacol. 121(2):318-23. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Ferracane, R., et al. 2010. Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots and leaves. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 51 (2), 399-404. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Hayashi, K., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effect of arctiin and arctigenin in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice infected with influenza A virus. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (7), 1199-1205. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Kardosová, A., et al. 2003. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 33 (1–3), 135–140. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.01.2011).

Kim, B., et al. 2008. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 327 (2), 393-401. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011).

Kim, S., et al. 2003. Hepatoprotective dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans of Torreya nucifera against CCl4-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (8), 1202–1205. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011)

Knipping, K., et al. 2008. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 233 (11), 1469–1477. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011).

Lee, I., et al. 2011. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Leonar, S.S.,et al. 2006. Essiac tea: scavenging of reactive oxygen species and effects on DNA damage. J. Ethnopharmacol. 103(2): 288-96. URL: (accessed 8/18/2011).

Li, D. et al. 2008. Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock. Anaerobe. , 14(1):29-34. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/18/2012).

Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24:127-137. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Lin SC, Lin CH, Lin CC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Sep-Oct;9(5):401-9. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Marjoribanks, J. et al. 2010. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev., (1):CD001751. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Pedersen, M. (1998), Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs (pp. 57-59).Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications.

Predes, F., et al. 2011. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 25. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Predes, F. et al. 2009. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 52(2). URL: (accessed 4/18/2012).

Saric-Kundalic, B., et al. 2010. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. Ethnopharmacol., 131 (1), 33-55. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Sohn, E., et al. 2011. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L. Clin. Mol. Allergy, 9 (1), 4. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Susanti, S., et al. 2012. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of arctigenin isolated from herbal plabt Arctium lappa L. J Nat Med. Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Tsai, W., et al. 2011. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Chin. Med., 6 (1), 12. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Williams, T. J. 1978. The role of prostaglandins in inflammation. Ann R Coll Sug Engl., 60(3):198-201. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Ynag, Z. et al. 2005. [Effect of anti-influenza virus of Arctigenin in vivo]. (In Chinese). Zhong Yao Cai., 28(11):1012-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Zhao F, Wang L, Liu K. 2009. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (3), 457–462. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.01.2011).

Zick, S.M., et al. 2006. Trial of Essiac to ascertain its effect in women with breast cancer (TEA-BC). J Altern Complement Med. 12(10): 971-80. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/18/2012).

Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus castus)

[No author.] 2009. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 14 (2), 67–70. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Atmaca, M., et al. 2003. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 18 (3), 191–195. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Berger, et al. 2000. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 264, 150–153. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Blumenthal, et al. 2003. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Cahill, D., et al 1994. Multiple follicular development associated with herbal medicine. Human Reprod., 9, 1469–1470. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Chopin, L. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003), 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

Dharmasiri, M., et al. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87 (2-3), 199-206. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Girman, A., et al. 2003. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 188 (5 Suppl.), S56-S65. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Greenspan, F.S., & Garner, D.G. (Eds.). (2004). Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (7th ed.) (125-6). New York, NY: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.

Gupta, R.K., Tandon, V.R. 2005. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-Negundo Linn leaf extract. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 49(2):163-70. URL (abstract): (accessed 7/16/2007).

Halaska, M., et al. 1999. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast, 8 (4), 175-181. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Horrobin, D.G. 1983. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 28(7): 465-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/23/2012).

Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Huddleston, M., Jackson, E.A. 2001. Is an extract of the fruit of agnus castus (chaste tree or chasteberry) effective for the prevention of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?. J Fam Pract., 50(4):298. URL: (accessed 7/16/2007).

Jarry, H., et al. 2003. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med., 69, 945–947.

Jarry, H., et al. 1994. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: Direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 102, 448–454. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Lauritzen, et al. 1997. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: Controlled double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine, 4, 183–189.

Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Liu, J., et al. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49 (5), 2472-2479. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003) 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B., et al. 2002. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A self-care survey. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 8, 148–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Milewicz, A., et al. 1993. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.] Arzneim.–Forsch./Drug Res., 43, 752–756. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.26.2011).

Ohyama, K., et al. 2003. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (1), 10-18. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.06.2007).

Schellenberg, 2001. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322, 134–137. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Sliutz, G., et al. 1993. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Horm Metab Res., 25(5):253-5. URL (abstract): (accessed 7/16/2007).

Tandon, V., et al. 2006. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 124 (4), 447-450. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Villasenor, I., & Lamadrid, M. 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (1-2), 128-131. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Wang, C., Chan, V. 1982. Divergent effects of prolactin on estrogen and progesterone production by granulose cells of rat Graafian follicles. Endocrinology., 110(4): 1085-93. URL (abstract): (accessed 5/10/2012).

Webster, D., et al. 2006. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: Implication for its use in PMS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106 (2), 216-221. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) — pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine, 10 (4), 248-357. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Ylikorkala, O. 1994. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors in menorrhagia, intrauterine contraceptive device-induced side effects and endometriousis. Pharmacol Toxicol. 74 Suppl 2:86-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/23/2012).

Zamani, M., et al. 2012. Therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Acta Med Iran. 50(2):101-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/25/2012).

Chromium (Chromium Picolinate)

Albarracin, C., et al. 2008. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 24 (1), 41-51. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Anton, S., et al. 2008. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol. Ther., 10 (5), 405-412. URL: (accessed 10.25.2011).

Blum, K., et al. 2007. Manipulation of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) activity to influence the attenuation of substance seeking behavior, a subtype of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), is dependent upon gene polymorphisms: a hypothesis. Med Hypotheses., 69(5):1054-60. Epub 2007 Apr 30. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/18/2012).

Broadhurst, C., & Domenico, P. 2006. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus — a review. Diabetes Technol. Ther., 8 (6), 677-687. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Cefalu, W., et al. 2002. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats. J. Nutr., 132 (6), 1107–1114. URL: (accessed 10.25.2011).

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Dong quai (Angelica sinensis)

Al-Bareeq, R.J., Ray, A.A., Nott, L., Pautler, S.E., Razvi, H. (2010). Dong Quai (angelica sinensis) in the treatment of hot flashes for men on androgen deprivation therapy: results of a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Can Urol Assoc J, 4(1), 49-53. URL: (accessed: 8/10/2011).

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Chen, L. C., Chen, I. C., Wang, B. R., Shao, C. H. 2009. Drug-use pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in insomnia: a 4-year survey in Taiwan. J Clin Pharm Ther, 34(5), 555-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2011).

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Hirata, J. D., Swiersz, L. M., Zell, B., Small, R., Ettinger, B. 1997. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril, 68(6), 981-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

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Lau, C. B., Ho, T. C., Chan, T. W., Kim, S. C. 2005. Use of dong quai (Angelica sinensis) to treat peri- or postmenopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer: is it appropriate? Menopause, 12(6), 734-40. Epub 2005 Nov 8. URL (abstract): (accessed 8/10/2011).

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Shang, P., Qian, A. R., Yang, T. H., Jia, M., Meim Q. B., Cho, C. H., Zhao, W. M., Chen, Z. N. 2003. Experimental study of anti-tumor effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis. World J Gastroenterol, 9(9), 1963-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

Shih C, Su Y, Liao C, and Lin J. Patterns of medical pluralism among adults: results from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010; 10: 191. Published online 2010 July 6. URL: (accessed 8/10/2011).

Deng, S., Chen, S., Yao, P., Nikolic, D., van Breemen, R. B., Bolton, J. L., Fong, H.H.S., Farnsworth, N. R., Pauli, G. F 2006. Serotonergic Activity-Guided Phytochemical Investigation of the Roots of Angelica sinensis. (Author manuscript available in PMC 2007 May 10.) J Nat Prod, 69(4), 536-541. URL: (accessed 3/20/2012).

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Yuan, X., Sun, Y., Miao, N., Sun, S., Wang, Y., Hu, Z., Yuan, J., Xu, M., Liu, Z. 201). The synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine and its modulation on inflammation-associated mediators in RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol, 137(3), 1477-85. Epub 2011 Aug 22. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

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Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.)

Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A., Khani, M. 2003. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 74(7), 863–866. URL (accessed (3/20/2012).

Awad, R., Levac, D., Cybulska, P., Merali, Z., Trudeau, V. L., Arnason, J. T. 2007. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 85(9), 933-42. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Karabulut-Bulan, O., Yesilyaprak, B. 2005. Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99(3), 391-398, ISSN 0378-8741. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Canadanovic-Brunet, J., Cetkovic, G., Djilas, S., Tumbas, V., Bogdanovic, G., Mandic, A., Markov, S., Cvetkovic, D., Canadanovic, V. 2008. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts. Med Food,11(1), 133-43. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Cases, J., Ibarra, A., Feuillère, N., Roller, M., Sukkar, S. 2011. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Med J Nutrition Meta, 4(3), 211–218. Published online 2010 December 17. URL: (accessed 3/8/2012).

Cassettari de Carvalho, N., Corrêa-Angeloni, M., Leffa, .D, Moreira, J., Nicolau, V., de Aguiar Amaral, P., Rossatto, A., Moraes de Andrade, V. 2011. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice. Genet Mol Biol, 34(2), 290–297. Published online 2011 April. URL: (accessed 3/8/2012).

Chlabicz, J., Galasinski, W. 1986. The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmaco, 38(11), 791-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Englberger W, Hadding U, Etschenberg E, Graf E, Leyck S, Winkelmann J, Parnham MJ. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988; 10(6):729-37. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Hohmann, J., Zupkó, I., Rédei, D., Csányi, M., Falkay, G., Máthé, I., Janicsák, G. 1999. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med, 65(6), 576-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Little, W., Scholey, A. B. 2004. Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm). Psychosom Med, 66(4), 607-13. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Scholey, A. B., Tildesley, N. T., et al. 2002. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 72(4), 953-64. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Wake, G., Savelev, S., et al. 2003. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(10), 1871-81. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Khayyal, M. T., el-Ghazaly, M. A., Kenawy, S. A., Seif-el-Nasr, M., Mahran, L. G., Kafafi, Y. A., Okpanyi, S. N. 2001. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung, 51(7), 545-53. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Natural Standard Lemon Balm (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Natural Standard

Peake, P. W., Pussell, B. A., Martyn, P., Timmermans, V., Charlesworth, J. A. 1991. The inhibitory effect of rosmarinic acid on complement involves the C5 convertase. Int J Immunopharmacol, 13(7), 853-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Pereira, R. P., Fachinetto, R., de Souza Prestes, A., Puntel, R. L., Santos da Silva, G. N., Heinzmann, B. M., Boschetti, T. K., Athayde, M. L., Bürger, M. E., Morel, A. F., Morsch, V. M., Rocha, J. B. 2009. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. Neurochem Res, 34(5), 973-83. Epub 2008 Oct 14. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Sadraei, H., Ghannadi, A., Malekshahi, K. 2003. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions. Fitoterapia, 74(5), 445-52. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Woodard, S. Ancient Remedies Modern Cures. 2009. Prevention, 62(2), 102-108, 7p. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Maca (Lepidium meyenii)

Akhtar, N., Miller, M. J., Haqqi, T. M. 2011. Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1ß-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes. BMC Complement Altern Med, 11, 66. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-66. URL: (accessed 3/12/2012).

Brooks, N. A., Wilcox, G., Walker, K. Z., Ashton, J. F., Cox, M. B., Stojanovska, L. 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause, 15(6),1157-62. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Canales, M., Aguilar, J., Prada, A., Marcelo, A., Huamán, C., Carbajal, L. 2000. [Nutritional evaluation of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) in albino mice and their descendants]. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 50(2), 126-33. [Article in Spanish]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Chung, F., Rubio, J., Gonzales, C., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 98(1-2), 143-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Cicero, A. F., Bandieri, E., Arletti, R. 2001. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol, 75(2-3), 225-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Clément, C., Kneubühler, J., Urwyler, A., Witschi, U., Kreuzer, M. 2010. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles. Theriogenology, 74(2), 173-83. Epub 2010 May 10. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Dording, C. M., Fisher, L., Papakostas, G., Farabaugh, A., Sonawalla, S., Fava, M., Mischoulon, D. 2008. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther, 14(3), 182-91. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gasco, M., Aguilar, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats. Andrologia, 39(4), 151-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gasco, M., Villegas, L., Yucra, S., Rubio, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate. Phytomedicine, 14(7-8), 460-4. Epub 2007 Feb 7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, C., Cárdenas-Valencia, I., Leiva-Revilla, J., Anza-Ramirez, C., Rubio, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2010. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats. Forsch Komplementmed, 17(3), 137-43. Epub 2010 Jun 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F. 2012. Ethonobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012:193496. Epub 2011 Oct 2. URL: (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Cordova, A., Gonzales, C., Chung, A., Vega, K., Villena, A. 2001. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl, 3(4), 301-3. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Córdova, A., Vega, K., Chung , A., Villena, A., Góñez, C., Castillo, S. 2002. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia, 34(6), 367-72. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gasco, M., Malheiros-Pereira, A., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2008. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice. Andrologia, 40(3), 179-85. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2009. The Methyltetrahydro-{beta}-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 6(3), 315-6. Epub 2008 Jun 19. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gonzales, C., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2009. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science. Forsch Komplementmed, 16(6), 373-80. Epub 2009 Dec 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, C., Leiva-Revilla, J., Rubio, J., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2011. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Andrologia. (2011 Jul 18). doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01190.x. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Lee, M. S., Shin, B. C., Yang, E. J., Lim, H. J., Ernst, E. 2011. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas, 70(3), 227-33. [Epub 2011 Aug 15]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Lentz, A., Gravitt, K., Carson, C. C., Marson, L. 2007. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med, 4(2), 332-9; discussion 339-40. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

López-Fando, A., Gómez-Serranillos, M. P., Iglesias, I., Lock, O., Upamayta, U. P., Carretero, M. E. 2004. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res, 18(6), 471-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Miller, M. J., Ahmed, S., Bobrowski, P., Haqqi, T. M. 2006. The chrondoprotective actions of a natural product are associated with the activation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes despite the presence of IL-1beta. BMC Complement Altern Med, 6, 13. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Oshima, M., Gu, Y., Tsukada, S. 2003. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci, 65(10), 1145-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Piacente, S., Carbone, V., Plaza, A., Zampelli, A., Pizza, C. 2002. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem, 50(20), 5621-5.URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Pino-Figueroa, A., Nguyen, D., Maher, T. J. 2010. Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1199, 77-85. URL (abstract): (accessed3/12/2012).

Ranilla, L. G., Kwon, Y. I., Apostolidis, E., Shetty, K. 2010. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour Technol, 101(12), 4676-89. [Epub 2010 Feb 25]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Caldas, M., Dávila, S., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2006. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Altern Med, 6, 23. URL (abstract): (accessed3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Dang, H., Gong, M., Liu, X., Chen, S. L., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol, 45(10), 1882-90. [Epub 2007 Apr 20]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio J, Qiong W, Liu X, Jiang Z, Dang H, Chen SL, Gonzales GF. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2008 Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Riqueros, M. I., Gasco, M., Yucra, S., Miranda, S., Gonzales, G. F. 2008. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 44(7), 1114-22. [Epub 2006 Feb 28]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Yucra, S., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2011. Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol. Toxicol Mech Methods, 21(8), 628-34. [Epub 2011 Jul 22]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Ruiz-Luna, A. C., Salazar, S., Aspajo, N. J., Rubio, J., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 3, 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Stone, M., Ibarra, A., Roller, M., Zangara, A., Stevenson, E. 2009. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol, 126(3), 574-6. [Epub 2009 Sep 23]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012)/

Valentová, K., Buckiová, D., Kren, V., Peknicová, J., Ulrichová, J., Simánek, V. 2006. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts. Cell Biol Toxicol, 22(2), 91-9. [Epub 2006 Mar 9].URl (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Valentová, K., Ulrichová, J. 2003. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repu 147(2), 119-30. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Valerio Jr, L. G., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis. Toxicol Rev, 24(1), 11-35. URl (abstract): (accessed3/13/2012).

Vecera, R., Orolin, J., Skottová, N., Kazdová, L., Oliyarnik, O., Ulrichová, J., Simánek, V. 2007. The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62(2), 59-63.URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Zhang, Y., Yu, L., Ao, M., Jin, W. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105 ( 1–2), 274-279. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Zenico, T., Cicero, A. F., Valmorri, L., Mercuriali, M., Bercovich, E. 2009. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia, 41(2), 95-9. URL (abstract): (accessed3/12/2012).

Zhang, Y., Yu, L., Ao, M., Jin, W. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol, 105(1-2), 274-9. [Epub 2006 Feb 8]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Zhao, J., Avula, B., Chan, M., Clément, C., Kreuzer, M., Khan, I. A. 2012. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis. Planta Med, 78(1), 90-101. [Epub 2011 Aug 19]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Zheng, B. L., He, K., Kim, C. H., Rogers, L., Shao, Y., Huang, Z. Y., Lu, Y., Yan, S. J., Qien, L. C., Zheng, Q. Y. 2000. Effect of a lipidic extract from lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology, 55(4), 598-602. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa)

Bender, W. 1995. ACE inhibitors for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Headache, 35 (8), 470–471.

Benghuzzi, H., et al. 2003. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats. Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 39, 335–340.

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