Sleep Reset Program


Women’s Health Network Melatonin is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the melatonin.

Alvarez B., et al. 1992. The delayed sleep phase syndrome: Clinical and investigative findings in 14 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.55:665-670. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Appleton, R. E., & Gringras, P. 2013. Melatonin: helping to MEND impaired sleep. Arch Dis Child. 98:216-217. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Armstrong, S.M. & Redman, J.R. 1991. Melatonin: A chronobiotic with anti-aging properties? Med Hypotheses. 34:300-309. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Beck-Friis J., et al. 1985. Serum melatonin in relation to clinical variables in patients with major depressive disorder and a hypothesis of a low melatonin syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand.71:319-330. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Bismar, K., et al. 1987. Depressed melatonin secretion in patients with nightmares due to beta adrenoceptor blocking drug. Acta Med Scand. 221:155-158. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Brown, G.M., et al. 2009. Melatonin and its relevance to jet lag. Travel Med Infect is. 7(2): 69-81. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Cardinali, D.P., et al. 2011. The use of chronobiotics in the resynchronization of the sleep/wake cycle. Therapeutical application in the early phases of Alzheimer’s disease. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 5(2): 80-90. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Carpentieri, A., et al. 2012. New perspectives in melatonin uses. Pharmacol Res. 65(4): 437-44. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Comperatore, C. A., et al. 1996. Melatonin efficacy in aviation missions requiring repaid deployment and night operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 67(6):520-4. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Dahlitz, M., et al. 1991. Delayed sleep phase syndrome response to melatonin. Lancet. 337:1121-1124. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Dawson, D. & Armstrong, S.M. 1996. Chronobiotics – drugs that shift rhythms. Pharmacol Ther. 69 (1): 15-36. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Dijk, D. J., et al. 2012. Amplitude reduction and phase shifts of melatonin, cortisol and other circadian rhythms after a gradual advance of sleep and light exposure in humans. PLoS One. 7(2):e30037. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Eckerberg, B., et al. 2012. Melatonin treatment effects on adolescent students’ sleep timing and sleepiness in a placebo-controlled crossover study. Chronobiol Int. 29(9): 1239-48. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Elbaz, I., et al. 2013. Circadian clocks, rhythmic synaptic plasticity and the sleep-wake cycle in zebrafish. Front Neural Circuits. Epub February 1, 2013. URL: (accessed 06/13/2013).

Gorfine, T., et al. 2006. S;eep-anticipating effects of melatonin in the human brain. Neuroimage. 31(1): 410-8. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Jan, J.E. & Freeman, R.D. 2007. Melatonin therapy for circadian rhythm sleep disorders in children with multiple disabilities: what have we learned in the last decade? Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 46(11): 776-782. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Jarratt, J. 2011. Perioperative melatonin use. Anaesth Intensive Care. 39(2): 171-81. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lieberman, H.R. 1989. Behavior, sleep and melatonin. J Neural Transm Suppl. 21:233-241. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lieberman, H.R., et al. 1985. Possible behavioral consequences of light-induced changes in melatonin availability. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 453: 242-52. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lieberman, H.R., et al. 1984. Effects of melatonin on human mood and performance. Brain Res. 323(2): 201-7. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lissoni, P., et al. 1992. Randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer resistant to a first-line chemotherapy containing cisplatin. Oncology. 49(5): 336-9. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lissoni, P., et al. 1991. Clinical results with the pineal hormone melatonin in advanced cancer resistant to standard antitumor therapies. Oncology. 48:448-450. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lissoni, P., et al. 1989. Endocrine and immune effects of melatonin therapy in metastatic cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 25(5): 789-95. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Lyseng-Williamson, K.A. 2012. Melatonin prolonged release: in the treatment of insomnia in patients aged =55 years. Drugs Aging. 29(11): 911-23. ULR (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Paul, M.A., et al. 2011. Phase advance with separate and combined melatonin and light treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl.). 214(2): 515-23. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Paul, M.A., et al. 2010. Melatonin treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation. Psychopharacology (Berl). 208(3): 377-86. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Petterborg, L. J., et al. 1991. Effect of melatonin replacement on serum hormone rhythms in a patient lacking endogenous melatonin. Brain Res Bull. 27(2): 181-5. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Radeljak, S., et al. 2008. Chromotherapy in the regulation of neurohormonal balance in human brain – complementary application in modern psychiatric treatment. Coll Antropol. 32 Suppl 2: 185-8. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Reiter, R.J. & Korkmaz, A. 2008. Clinical aspects of melatonin. Saudi Med J.29(11): 1537-47. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Rios, E.R., et al. 2012. Melatonin: pharmacological aspects and clinical trends. Int J Neurosci. 120(9): 583-90. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Scheer, F.A., et al. 2012. Repeated melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. 35(10): 1395-402. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Srinivasan, V., et al. 2009. Melatonin and melatonergic drugs on sleep: possible mechanisms of action. Int J Neurosci. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Turek, F.W. & Gillette, M.U. 2004. Melatonin, sleep, and circadian rhythms: rationale for development of specific melatonin agonists. Sleep Med. 5(6): 523-32. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Waldhauser, F., et al. 1987. A pharmacological dose of melatonin increases PRL levels in males without altering those of GH, LH, FSH, TSH, testosterone or cortisol. Neuroendocrinology. 46(2): 125-30. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Waldhauser, F., et al. 1984. Bioavailability of oral melatonin in humans. Neuroendocrinology. 39(4): 307-13. URL (abstract): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Wyatt, J.K., et al. 2006. Sleep-facilitating effect of exogenous melatonin in healthy young men and women is circadian-phase dependent. Sleep. 29(5): 609-18. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).

Zawilska, J.B., et al. 2009. Physiology and pharmacology of melatonin in relation to biological rhythms. Pharmacol Rep. 61(3): 383-410. URL (abstract only): (accessed 07/10/2013).


Our Serinisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Serinisol.


L-theanine . Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Jun;10(2):136-8. PubMed PMID: 15989383.

Borzelleca JF, Peters D, Hall W. A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1158-66. Epub 2006 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 16759779.

Bryan J. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine. Nutr Rev. 2008 Feb;66(2):82-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 18254874.

Cho HS, Kim S, Lee SY, Park JA, Kim SJ, Chun HS. Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death. Neurotoxicology. 2008 Jul;29(4):656-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2008.03.004. Epub 2008 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 18452993.

Desai MJ, Armstrong DW. Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(3):251-6. PubMed PMID: 14755608.

Egashira N, Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Kimura H, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Neuroprotective effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine) on cerebral infarction in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 3;363(1):58-61. PubMed PMID: 15157996.

Eschenauer G, Sweet BV. Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of theanine. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Jan 1;63(1):26, 28-30. PubMed PMID: 16373462.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Kelly SP, Montesi JL, Foxe JJ. The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task. Brain Topogr. 2009 Jun;22(1):44-51. doi: 10.1007/s10548-008-0068-z. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 18841456.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Higgins BA, Rycroft JA, Owen GN, Mahoney J, Shpaner M, Foxe JJ. The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):25-38. PubMed PMID: 17272967.

Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol. 2008 Feb;77(2):113-22. Epub 2007 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 18006208.

Jang HS, Jung JY, Jang IS, Jang KH, Kim SH, Ha JH, Suk K, Lee MG. L-theanine partially counteracts caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Apr;101(2):217-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.01.011. Epub 2012 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 22285321.

Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, Okamura N, Okai O. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Feb;64(2):287-93. PubMed PMID: 10737183.

Kakuda T, Hinoi E, Abe A, Nozawa A, Ogura M, Yoneda Y. Theanine, an ingredient of green tea, inhibits [3H]glutamine transport in neurons and astroglia in rat brain. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Jun;86(8):1846-56. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21637. PubMed PMID: 18293419.

Kim TI, Lee YK, Park SG, Choi IS, Ban JO, Park HK, Nam SY, Yun YW, Han SB, Oh KW, Hong JT. l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Dec 1;47(11):1601-10. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.09.008. Epub 2009 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 19766184.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 16930802.

Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Oct;19(7):457-65. PubMed PMID: 15378679.

Lyon MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54. PubMed PMID: 22214254.

Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 21;11:15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-15. PubMed PMID: 21338496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3049752.Free full text

Nagasawa K, Aoki H, Yasuda E, Nagai K, Shimohama S, Fujimoto S. Possible involvement of group I mGluRs in neuroprotective effect of theanine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 16;320(1):116-22. PubMed PMID: 15207710.

Nathan PJ, Lu K, Gray M, Oliver C. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):21-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17182482.

Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8. PubMed PMID: 18296328.

Park SK, Jung IC, Lee WK, Lee YS, Park HK, Go HJ, Kim K, Lim NK, Hong JT, Ly SY, Rho SS. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Med Food. 2011 Apr;14(4):334-43. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1374. Epub 2011 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 21303262.

Ritsner MS, Miodownik C, Ratner Y, Shleifer T, Mar M, Pintov L, Lerner V. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;72(1):34-42. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05324gre. Epub 2010 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 21208586.

Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;195(4):569-77. Epub 2007 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 17891480.

Tian X, Sun L, Gou L, Ling X, Feng Y, Wang L, Yin X, Liu Y. Protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Brain Res. 2013 Mar 29;1503:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.01.048. Epub 2013 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 23395732.

Unno K, Tanida N, Ishii N, Yamamoto H, Iguchi K, Hoshino M, Takeda A, Ozawa H, Ohkubo T, Juneja LR, Yamada H. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary a-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Oct;111:128-35. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 24051231.

Wise LE, Premaratne ID, Gamage TF, Lichtman AH, Hughes LD, Harris LS, Aceto MD. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Dec;103(2):245-52. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.008. Epub 2012 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 22935630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3754842.

Yin C, Gou L, Liu Y, Yin X, Zhang L, Jia G, Zhuang X. Antidepressant-like effects of L-theanine in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Phytother Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):1636-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3456. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 21425373.

Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res. 1998 May;23(5):667-73. PubMed PMID: 9566605.

Yokogoshi H, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines, striatal dopamine release and some kinds of behavior in rats. Nutrition. 2000 Sep;16(9):776-7. PubMed PMID: 10978861.

Yoto A, Motoki M, Murao S, Yokogoshi H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012 Oct 29;31:28. doi: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-28. PubMed PMID: 23107346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3518171.Free full text

Zukhurova M, Prosvirnina M, Daineko A, Simanenkova A, Petrishchev N, Sonin D, Galagudza M, Shamtsyan M, Juneja LR, Vlasov T. L-theanine administration results in neuroprotection and prevents glutamate receptor agonist-mediated injury in the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Phytother Res. 2013 Sep;27(9):1282-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4868. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 23097345.

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2238. [23 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2238. Available online:


Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Heaney, R. 2008. Calcium supplementation and incident kidney stone risk: A systematic review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 27 (5), 519–527. URL: (accessed 01.20.2011).

Carroll, D., et al. 2000. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 150 (2), 220–225. URL (abstract/intro): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S. 2000. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19 (2), 220–227. URL: (accessed 02.09.2011).

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27 (1), 1–14. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Nuglozeh, E., & Roberge, A. 1998. Dietary calcium supplementation and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biochem. Pharmacol., 53 (12), 1867–1871. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Whiting, S., et al. 1998. Calcium supplementation. J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract., 9 (4), 187–192. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1998. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 179 (2), 444–452. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Penland, J., & Johnson, P. 1993. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 168 (5), 1417–1423. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1989. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 4 (3), 183–189. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).


Garalejic, E., et al. 2010. Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) in infertile women with endometriosis and its correlation with magnesium levels in peritoneal fluid. Psychiatr. Danub., 22 (1), 64–67. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nielsen, F., et al. 2010. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes. Res., 23 (4), 158–168. URL: (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jacka, F., et al. 2009. Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: The Hordaland Health Study. Aust. NZ J. Psychiatry, 43 (1), 45–52. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Muroyama, A., et al. 2009. Enhanced susceptibility to MPTP neurotoxicity in magnesium-deficient C57BL/6N mice. Neurosci. Res., 63 (1), 72–75. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E. 2008. Benzodiazepine/GABA(A) receptors are involved in magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (4), 483–489. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E., et al. 2008. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (5), 655–663. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Spasov, A., et al. 2008. [Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient diet]. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat Im. IP Pavlova, 58 (4), 476–485. Russian. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Eby, G., & Eby, K. 2006. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med. Hypotheses, 67 (2), 362–370. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Grases, G., et al. 2006. Anxiety and stress among science students. Study of calcium and magnesium alterations. Magnes. Res., 19 (2), 102–106. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Mucci M., et al. 2006. Soy isoflavones, lactobacilli, Magnolia bark extract, vitamin D3 and calcium. Controlled clinical study in menopause. Minerva Ginecol., 58 (4), 323–334. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Siwek, M., et al. 2005. [The role of copper and magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders.] Psychiatr. Pol., 39 (5), 911–920. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Durlach, J., et al. 2004. Importance of magnesium depletion with hypofunction of the biological clock in the pathophysiology of headaches with photophobia, sudden infant death and some clinical forms of multiple sclerosis. Magnes. Res., 17 (4), 314–326. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Fromm, L., et al. 2004. Magnesium attenuates post-traumatic depression/anxiety following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23 (5), 529S–533S. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Hanus, M., et al. 2004. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Curr. Med. Res. Opin., 20 (1), 63–71. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Jonczak, L., et al. 2004. [Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements during sleep in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea]. Neurol. Neurochir. Pol., 38 (5), 427–430. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E., et al. 2004. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 78 (1), 7–12. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Singewald, N., et al. 2004. Magnesium-deficient diet alters depression- and anxiety-related behavior in mice — influence of desipramine and Hypericum perforatum extract. Neuropharmacology, 47 (8), 1189–1197. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Vink, R., et al. 2003. Magnesium attenuates persistent functional deficits following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. Neurosci. Lett., 336 (1), 41–44. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Ezhov, A., & Pimenov L. 2002. [Effect of adjuvant magnesium therapy on the quality of life and emotional status of elderly patients with stable angina]. Adv. Gerontol., 10, 95–98. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Held, K., et al. 2002. Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35 (4), 135–143. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Murck, H. 2002. Magnesium and affective disorders. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (6), 375–389. Review. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Carroll, D., et al. 2000. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 150 (2), 220–225. URL (abstract/intro): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Chollet, D., et al. 2000. Blood and brain magnesium in inbred mice and their correlation with sleep quality. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 279 (6), R2173–R2178. URL: (accessed 02.09.2011).

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Babenko, N., & Semenova, Y. 2011. Effects of exogenous phosphatidylserine on cognitive functions and phospholipid metabolism in the hippocampus of aged rats. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol., 41 (1), 97–101. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Hoffman, J., et al. 2010. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 7 (1), 39. URL: (accessed 02.15.2011).

Kato–Kataoka, A., et al. 2010. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 47 (3), 246–255. URL: (accessed 02.15.2010).

Lee, B., et al. 2010. Krill phosphatidylserine improves learning and memory in Morris water maze in aged rats. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 34 (6), 1085–1093. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Richter, Y., et al. 2010. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: A pilot study. Clin. Interv. Aging, 5, 313–316. URL: (accessed 02.15.2011).

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Wollen, K. 2010. Alzheimer’s disease: the pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners. Altern. Med. Rev., 15 (3), 223–244. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Vakhapova, V., et al. 2010. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord., 29 (5), 467–474. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Araujo, J., et al. 2008. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine. Can. Vet. J., 49 (4), 379–385. URL: (accessed 02.16.2011).

Baumeister, J., et al. 2008. Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress. Nutr. Neurosci., 11 (3), 103–110. URL: (accessed 02.16.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2008. Phosphatidylserine. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 13 (3), 245–247. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Starks, M., et al. 2008. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 5 (1), 11. URL: (accessed 01.20.2011).

Jäger, R., et al. 2007. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 4 (1), 23. URL: (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38 (1), 64–71. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Med., 36 (8), 657–69. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kataoka–Kato, A., et al. 2005. Enhanced learning of normal adult rodents by repeated oral administration of soybean transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 98, 307–314. URL: (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2005. Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 37 (8), 1300–1306. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.16.2011).

Hellhammer, J., et al. 2004. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress, 7 (2), 119–126. URL: (accessed 01.31.2011).

McDaniel, M., et al. 2003. “Brain-specific” nutrients: A memory cure? Nutrition, 19 (11–12), 957–975. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.31.2011).

Jorissen, B., et al. 2002. Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (5), 337–343. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Benton, D. et al. 2001. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci., 4 (3), 169–178. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Suzuki, S., et al. 2001. Oral administration of soybean lecithin transphophatidylate phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats. J. Nutr., 131, 2951–2956. URL: (accessed 02.18.2011).

Blokland, A., et al. 1999. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: Comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition, 15 (10), 778–783. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.07.2011).

Kelly, G. 1999. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern. Med. Rev., 4 (4), 249–265. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.20.2011).

Fahey, T., & Pearl, M. 1998. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol. Sport, 15, 135–144.

Furushiro, M., et al. 1997. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 75, 447–450. URL: (accessed 02.18.2011).

Pepeu, G., et al. 1996. A review of phosphatidylserine pharmacological and clinical effects. Is phosphatidylserine a drug for the ageing brain? Pharmacol Res., 33 (2), 73–80. URL (no abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cenacchi, B., et al. 1993. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging, 5 (2), 123–133. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cohen, S., & Muller, W. 1992. Age-related alterations of NMDA-receptor properties in the mouse forebrain: Partial restoration by chronic phosphatidylserine treatment. Brain Res., 584, 174–180. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1992. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol. Bull, 28 (1), 61–66. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Engel, R., et al. 1992. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2 (2), 149–155. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Monteleone, P., et al. 1992. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 42 (4), 385–388. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.31.2011).

Casamenti, F., et al. 1991. Phosphatidyl serine reverses the age-dependent decrease in cortical acetylcholine release: A microdialysis study. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 194 (1), 11–16. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1991. Effects of Phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurol., 41 (5), 644–649. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Drago, F., et al. 1991. Protective action of phosphatidylserine on stress-induced behavioral and autonomic changes in aged rats. Neurobiol. Aging, 12 (5), 437–440. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Klinkhammer, P., et al. 1990. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia, 1, 197–201. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.08.2011).

Maggioni, M., et al. 1990. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 81 (3), 265–270. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Monteleone, P., et al. 1990. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology, 52 (3), 243–248. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.31.2011).

Rosadini, G., et al. 1990–1991. Phosphatidylserine: Quantitative EEG effects in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychobiology, 24 (1), 42–48. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Vannucchi, M., et al. 1990. Decrease of acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats: Investigations into its reversal by phosphatidylserine. J. Neurochem., 55 (3), 819–825. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.01.2011).

Lombardi, G. 1989. [Pharmacological treatment with phosphatidyl serine of 40 ambulatory patients with senile dementia syndrome]. Minerva Med.,;80 (6), 599–602. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Slack, B., et al. 1989. Uptake of exogenous phosphatidylserine by human neuroblastoma cells stimulates the incorporation of [methyl-14C]choline into phosphatidylcholine. J. Neurochem., 53 (2), 472–481. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.08.2011).

Stockert, M., et al. 1989. In vivo action of phosphatidylserine, amitriptyline and stress on the binding of [3H] imipramine to membranes of the rat cerebral cortex. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 160 (1), 11–16. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.18.2011).

Amaducci, L. 1988. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 24 (1), 130–134. URL (no abstract available): (accessed 02.08.2011).

Blusztajn, J., et al. 1987. Phospholipids in cellular survival and growth. In Hanin, I., & Ansell, G. (eds.), Lecithin: Technological, biological, and therapeutic aspects, 85–94. NY: Plenum Press.

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Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)

Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526–532. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11–48. Review. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148–153. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33–40. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256–RA262. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769–1773. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577–583. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728–1732. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri–Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308–314. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703–716. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1–2), 39–45. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1–23. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410–2420. URL: (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581–583. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283–291. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435–441. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001b. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26, 363–367. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia, 72 (6), 698–702. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Correct identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a promising herbal anxiolytic and sedative. J. Med. Food, 4 (3), 137–144. URL: (accessed 01.28.2011).

Fisher, A., et al. 2000. Toxicity of Passiflora incarnata L. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 38 (1), 63–66. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Bourin, M., et al. 1997. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental. Clin. Pharmacol., 11 (2), 127–132. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.27.2011).

Salgueiro, J., et al. 1997. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 58 (4), 887–891. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Soulimani, R., et al. 1997. Behavioral effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J. Ethnopharmacol., 57 (1), 11–20. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.15.2011).

Rommelspacher, H., et al. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 252 (1), 51–59. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.27.2011).

Wolfman, C., et al. 1994. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Medina, J., et al. 1990. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem. Pharmacol., 40 (10), 2227–2231. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Speroni, E., & Minghetti, A. 1988. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med., 54 (6), 588–491. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.28.2011).

Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): (accessed 01.28.2011).