Super C Plus References

Our Super C Plus is formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Super C Plus.

Vitamin C (Calcium ascorbate)

Anderson, P. A., et al. 2012. Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformaties in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias Taurus, in public aquaria. J Zoo Wildl Med. 43(4): 750-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Ceriello, A., et al. 2012. Evidence that hyperglycemia after recovery from hypoglycemia worsens endothelial function and increases oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy control subjects and subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 61 (11): 2993-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013)

Cha, J., et al. 2013. Ascorbate supplementation inhibits growth and metastasis of B16FO melanoma and 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitamin C-deficient mice. Int J Oncol. 42(1): 55-64. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Dennehy, C., & Tsourounis, C. 2010. A review of select vitamins and minerals used by postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 66 (4), 370–380. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Farombi, E., & Onyema, O. 2006. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: Modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 25 (5), 251–259. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Frei, B., et al. 2012. Authors’ perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 52(9): 815-29. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Gabbay, K., et al. 2010. Ascorbate synthesis pathway: Dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis. J. Biol. Chem., 285 (25), 19510–19520. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Gunes, T., et al. a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in early postoperative period of cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 13(11): 691-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Harikrishnan, R., et al. 2013. Protective effect of ascorbic acid against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male guinea pigs. Br J Nutr. 21: 1-10 [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Hie, M., & Tsukamoto, I. 2010. Vitamin C-deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis with an increase in RANK expression. J. Nutr. Biochem. 22(2): 164-71. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Jelodar, G., et al. 2013. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. Electromagn Biol Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, C. H., et al. 2013. Involvement of Mitochondrial DNA Damage Elicited by Oxidative Stress in the Arsenical Skin Cancers. J Invest Dermatol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, T. H., et al. 2013. The use of lyophilized plasma in severe multi-injury pig model. Transfusion. 53 Suppl 1:72S-9S. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88 (4), 1523–1527. URL: (accessed 2/6/2013).

Maïmoun, L., et al. 2008. Effect of antioxidants and exercise on bone metabolism. J. Sports Sci., 26 (3), 251–258. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Massé, P., et al. 2008. Cardiovascular disease-risk factors in middle-aged osteopaenic women treated with calcium alone or combined to three nutrients essential to artery and bone collagen. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 21 (2), 117–128. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39 (4), 648–656. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Mikirova, N., et al. 2012. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients. J Transl Med. 10: 189. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Morton, D. 2001. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res., 16 (1), 135–140. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Neto, A., et al. 2010. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 112(1): 71-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

de Oliveira, B. F., et al. 2012. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines in mononuclear cells of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Nutr Neurosci. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Ruiz–Ramos, M., et al. 2010. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 14 (6), 467–472. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2008. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. J. Nutr., 138 (10), 1931–1938. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Temu, T., et al. 2010. The mechanism of ascorbic acid-induced differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 299 (2), E325–334. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Zanoni, J. N., et al. 2013. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid. An Acad Bras Cienc. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Meriva Curcumin Phytosome
(Curcuma longa, Phosphatidylcholine)

Ak, T. & Gülçin, I. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chemico-biological Interactions. 174(1): 24-37. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.003 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Allegri, P., et al. 2010. Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-term follow-up. Clin Ophthalmol. 4, 1201-1206. URL: (accessed 11/27/2012).

Appendino, G., et al. 2011. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med. 53(3 Suppl 1), 43-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 15 (4), 337-44. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Bradley, JR. 2008. TNF-mediated inflammatory disease. J Pathol. 214 (2): 149-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 52 (2 Suppl 1), 55-62. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/20012)

Chandran, B. & Goel, A. 2012. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res.26(11):1719-25. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4639 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Cuomo, J., et al. 2011. Comparative absorption of a standardized curcuminoid mixture and its lecithin formulation. J Nat Prod. , 74(4):664-9. Epub 2011 Mar 17. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012)

Gupta, N.K. & Dixit, V.K. 2011. Bioavailability enhancement of curcumin by complexation with phosphatidyl choline. J Pharm Sci. 100(5): 1987-95. URL: doi: 10.1002/jps.22393 (accessed 12/20/2012).

Heeba, G. H., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and quercetin in rats: Role of oxidative stress, heme oxygenase-1 and TBF- a. Toxicol Ind Health. Sept 28 (Epub ahead of print). URL: (accessed 12/18/2012).

Huang, G., et al. 2012. Curcumin Protects Against Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Suppression of BAFF Production. J Clin Immunol. November 27 (Epub ahead of print). URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ibrahim, A., et al. 2012. Effect of curcumin and Meriva on the lung metastasis of murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. In Vivo. July-Aug. 24 (4), 401-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Innes, J.F., et al. 2003. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study of P54FP for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis. Vet Rec. 152 (15): 547-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Iqbal, M., et al. 2003. Dietary Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances Antioxidant and Phase II Metabolizing Enzymes in ddY Male Mice: Possible Role in Protection against Chemical Carcinogenesis and Toxicity. Pharmacology & Toxicology. 92: 33-38. URL: (accessed 1/16/2012)

Jaco A., et al. 2007. Mechanism of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Curcumin: PPAR-gamma Activation. PPAR Res. 2007: 89369. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Khanna, S., et al. 2009. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of a novel demethylated curcuminoid. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11(3): 449-468. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/ars.2008.2230 (accesed 12/18/2012).

Kuptniratsaikul V., et al. 2009. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 15(8):891-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Lavrovsky, Y., et al. 2000. Role of redox-regulated transcription factors in inflammation, aging and age-related diseases. Exp Gerontol. Aug, 35 (5):521-32. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Liu, A., et al. 2006. Validated LC/MS/MS assay for curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin in rat plasma and application to pharmacokinetic study of phospholipid complex of curcumin. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 40(3): 720-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/20/2012).

Maiti, K., et al. 2007. Curcumin-phospholipid complex: Preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int J Pharm. 330(1-2): 155-63. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/20/2012).

Marczylo, T.H., et al. 2007. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylecholine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 60 (2), 171-7. Epub 2006 Oct 19. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Mazzolani, F. 2012. Pilot study of oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid formulation for treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. Clin Ophthalmol. 6, 801-6. Epub May 28, 2012. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012).

Mobasheri, A., et al. 2012. Scientific Evidence and Rationale for the Development of Curcumin and Resveratrol as Nutrceuticals for Joint Health. Int J Mol Sci. 13(4): 4202-4232. URL: (accessed 12/20/2012).

Obrenovich, M.E., et al. 2010. The role of polyphenolic antioxidants in health, disease, and aging. Rejuvenation Research. 13(6): 631-643. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/rej.2010.1043 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Phan, T.-T., et al. 2001. Protective Effects of Curcumin against Oxidative Damage on Skin Cells In Vitro: Its Implications for Would Healing. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 51 (5): 927-931. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Popa, C., et al. 2007. The role of TNF-a in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk. The Journal or Lipid Research. 48 (751-762). URL: doi: 10.1194/jlr.R600021-JLR200 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Priyadarsini, K. I., et al. 2003. Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 35(5): 475-484. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ruby, A.J., et al. 1995. Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids. Cancer Letters. 94(1): 79-83. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Serpe, R., et al. 2011. Cucuma longa extract is effective in reducing blood levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in patients with cancer-related cachexia and oxidative stress. Abstracts of the 6th Cachexia Conference, Milan, Italy, December 8-10, 2011. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2(4), 209-61. URL: (accessed 11/27/2012)

Shen, C.L., et al. 2012. Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. J Nutr Biochem. 23(11): 1367 – 77. URL (abstract): i: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.04.001 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Shehzad, A., et al. 2012. Curcumin in inflammatory disease. BioFactors. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/biof.1066. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013)

Shishodia S, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. 2005. Curcumin: getting back to the roots. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov. 1056 (206-17). URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Wolkmer, P., et al. 2012. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Int. Nov 29 (Epub ahead of print). URL: doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2012.11.004. (accessed 12/18/2012).


Aydin, S. et al. 2012. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of lycopene in obstructive jaundice. J Surg Res. 2012 Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Fujita, K., et al. 2013. Lycopene inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal apoptosis in gerbil hippocampal tissue. Neurochem res. 2013 Jan 8 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Garrido, M., et al. 2012. A lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil enhances antioxidant status in humans. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Oct 26 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Grainger, E. M., et al. 2008. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer. 60(2): 145-54. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Hsiao, G., et al. 2005. Inhibitory effects of lycopene on in vitro platelet activation and in vivo prevention of thrombus formation. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 146 (4), 216–226. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2012).

Kim, G., et al. 2004. Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunology, 113 (2), 203–211. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/2/2013).

Kremore, T.V., et al. 2012. Evaluation of the effect of newer antioxidant lycopene in the treatement of oral submucous fibrosis. Indian J Dent Res. 23 (4): 524-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2013).

Kim, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene II — effect on osteoblasts: The carotenoid lycopene stimulates cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of SaOS-2 cells. J. Med. Food, 6 (2), 79–86. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Liang, H., et al. 2012. Lycopene effects on serum mineral elements and bone strength in rats. Molecules. 17 (6): 7093-102. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 15(2): 133-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Supplementation with antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telepeptide of type 1 collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int.22 (4): 1091-101. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Marcotorchino, J., et al. 2012. Lycopene attenuates LPS-induced TNF-a secretion in macrophages and inflammatory markers in adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. Mol Nutr Food Res. 56 (5): 725-32. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Pattison, D., et al. 2005. Dietary beta-cryptoxanthin and inflammatory polyarthritis: Results from a population-based prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82 (2), 451–455. URL: (accessed 2/4/2013).

Quilliot, D., et al. 2011. Carotenoid deficiency in chronic pancreatitis: the effect of an increase in tomato consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr. 65(2): 262-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2007. Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos. Int., 18 (1), 109–115. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene I — effect on osteoclasts: Lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures. J. Med. Food., 6 (2), 69–78. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rauscher, R., et al. 1998. In vitro antimutagenic and in vivo anticlastogenic effects of carotenoids and solvent extracts from fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids. Mutat. Res., 413 (2), 129–142. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Renju, G.l., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen-induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Dec 14 (Epub ahead of print) URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4–y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89 (1), 416–424. URL (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J. Bone Miner. Res., 24 (6), 1086–1094. URL: (accessed 2/4/2013).

Shidfar, F., et al. 2012. Lycopene an adjunctive therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a quasi-control trial. J Complement Integr Med. 9:Article 14. URL (abstract): (accessed).

Shen, C. L., et al. 2012. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection. Nutr Res. 32 (12): 897-910. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Thies, F., et al. 2012. Effect of a tomato-rich diet on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in moderately overweight, disease-free, middle-aged adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 95(5): 1013-22. URL (abstract): (Accessed 2/5/2013).

Van Breemen, R. B., et al. 2002. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of cis- and all-trans-lycopene in human serum and prostate tissue after dietary supplementation with tomato sauce. J Agric Food Chem. 50(8): 2214-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Wattanapenpaiboon, N., et al. 2003. Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 12 (4), 467–473. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Xaplanteris, P., et al. 2012. Tomato paste supplementation improves endothelial dynamics and reduces plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 32 (5): 390-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Yang, Z., et al. 2008. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 78 (3), 105–111. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Zhao, X., et al. 2006. Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(1): 163-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Green Tea Extract

Brown, A., et al. 2011. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br. J. Nutr. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 10.21.2011).

Jeukendrup, A., & Randell, R. 2011. Fat burners: Nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes. Rev., 12 (10), 841-851. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Sae-tan, S., et al. 2011. Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea. Pharmacol. Res., 64 (2), 146-154. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.21.2011).

Reinbach, H., et al. 2009. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance. Clin. Nutr., 28 (3), 260-265. URL (abstract): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Bose, M., et al. 2008. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. J. Nutr., 138 (9), 1677-83. URL: (accessed 10.21.2011).

Boschmann M and Thielecke F. 2007. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 26(4):389S-395S. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Belza A, Jessen AB. 2005. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 9(6):733-41. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Kovacs, E., et al. 2004. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br. J. Nutr. 91, 431–437. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Nagao, T., et al. 2005. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:122–9. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Rumpler W., et al. 2001. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr. 2001;131:2848–52. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(6):1040-5. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 2000. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24(2):252-8. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).