Thyroid Symptom Relief Program

T-Balance Plus

Our T-Balance Plus is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of T-Balance Plus.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera/W. ashwagandha)

C Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: (accessed 09.06.2011).

C Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): (accessed 01.17.2011).

C Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Cooley, K., et al. 2009. Naturopathic care for anxiety: A randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PLoS One, 4 (8), e6628. URL: (accessed 05.13.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

B, C Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

B Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A3, A5 [No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.06.2011).

C Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75 (3), 547–555. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

B, C Singh, G., et al. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. (Part II). Phytother. Res., 17 (3), 531–536. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

C Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

B, C Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

B, C Andallu, B. & Radhika, B. 2000. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 38 (6), 607-609. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.13.2011).

C Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: (accessed 01.25.2011).

B, C Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A5, B, C Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.26.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Panda, S., & Kar, A. 1999. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 67 (2), 233-239. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Aphale, A., et al. 1998. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: A safety assessment. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 42 (2), 299-302. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.13.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Panda, S., & Kar, A. 1998. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 50 (9), 1065-1068. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1 (10), 16–19.

C Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Köhrle, J., et al. 1988. Flavonoid effects on transport, metabolism and action of thyroid hormones. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 280, 323-340. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20 (1), 29–35. URL (abstract): (accesesd 10.05.2011).

Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)

C Abascal, K., & Yarnell, E. 2011. Bacopa for the brain: A smart addition to Western medicine. Altern. Complement. Ther., 17 (1), 21-25. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

C Bhaskar, M., & Jagtap, A. 2011. Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera. Int. J. Ayurveda Res., 2 (1), 2-7. URL: (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Oliff, H. 2011. RE: Review of clinical potential of Bacopa in treatment of central nervous system-related ailments. HerbClip. URL (PDF): (accessed 09. 29.2011).

B, C Morgan, A., & Stevens, J. 2010. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (7), 753–759. URL: (abstract): (accessed 09.28.2011).

C Sumathi, T., & Niranjali Devaraj, S. 2009. Effect of Bacopa monnierai on liver and kidney toxicity in chronic use of opioids. Phytomedicine, 16 (10), 897-903. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Calabrese, C., et al. 2008. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement Med., 14 (6), 707-713. URL: (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

C Stough, C., et al. 2008. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90-day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Phytother Res., 22 (12), 1629–1634. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.28.2011).

B, C Pravina, K., et al. 2007. Safety evaluation of BacoMind in healthy volunteers: A phase I study. Phytomedicine, 14 (5), 301–308. URL: (accessed 10.05.2011).

B, C Raghav, S., et al. 2006. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. Indian J. Psychiatry, 48 (4), 238-242. URL:;year=2006;volume=48;issue=4;spage=238;epage=242;aulast=Raghav (accessed 05.16.2011).

C Russo, A., & Borrelli, F. 2005. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: An overview. Phytomedicine, 12 (4), 305–317. URL: (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Kar, A., et al. 2002. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 281–285. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.05.2011).

C Sairam, K., et al. 2002. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats. Phytomedicine, 9 (3), 207–211. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Asthana, O., et al. 1996. Safety and tolerability of bacosides A and B in healthy human volunteers. Indian J. Pharmacol., 28 (1), 37. URL (no abstract available): (accessed 10.05.2011).

Coleus forskohlii

A1–A3, A5, C Andrade, B., et al. 2011. A novel role for AMP-kinase in the regulation of the Na+/I--symporter and iodide uptake in the rat thyroid gland. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol,, 300 (6), C1291-1297. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Doorn, J., et al. 2011. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells. Tissue Eng. Part A. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

B Montalbetti, N., et al. 2011. Homeostasis of extracellular ATP in human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. [Epub ahead of print.] URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Lele, R. 2010. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med., 1 (4), 257–265. URL:;year=2010;volume=1;issue=4;spage=257;epage=265;aulast=Lele (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Lichtl–Kaiser, K., et al. 2009. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling modulates pregnane x receptor activity in a species-specific manner. J. Biol. Chem., 284 (11), 6639–6649. URL (PDF): (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Ding, X, & Staudinger, J. 2005. Induction of drug metabolism by forskolin: The role of the pregnane X receptor and the protein kinase A signal transduction pathway. JPET, 312 (2), 849–856. URL: (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Sun, S-C., et al. 2009. Thyrostimulin, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), acts as a paracrine regulator to activate the TSH receptor in mammalian ovary. J. Biol. Chem., 285 (6), 3758 –3765. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Monograph. 2006. Coleus forskohlii. Altern. Med. Rev. 11 (1), 47-51. URL: (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Henderson, S., et al. 2005. Effects of Coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 2 (2), 54-64. URL: (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A5 Venkateswaran, A., et al. 2004. Forskolin, 8-Br-3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and catalytic protein kinase A expression in the nucleus increase radioiodide uptake and sodium/iodide symporter protein levels in RET/PTC1-expressing cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89 (12), 6168-6172. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Sidhu, J., & Omiecinski, C. 1996. Forskolin-mediated induction of CYP3A1 mRNA expression in primary rat hepatocytes is independent of elevated intracellular cyclic AMP. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 276 (1), 238–245. URL: (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3. A5, C Roger, P., et al. 1987. Regulation of dog thyroid epithelial cell cycle by forskolin, and adenylate cyclase activator. Exp. Cell. Res., 172 (2), 282-292. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Ammon, H., & Muller, A. 1985. Forskolin: From an ayurvedic remedy to a modern agent. Planta Med. 51, 473-477. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Haye, B., et al. 1985. Chronic and acute effects of forskolin on isolated thyroid cell metabolism. Mol. Cell Endocrinol., 43 (1), 41-50. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Kasai, K., et al. 1985. Forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase in human thyroid membranes. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.), 108 (2), 200-205. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Mokhtari, A., et al. 1985. Forskolin modulates cyclic AMP generation in the rat myometrium. Interactions with isoproterenol and prostaglandins E2 and I2. J. Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor. Res., 10 (3), 213-227. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Daly, J., et al. 1982. Activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems in brain membranes and slices by the diterpene forskolin: augmentation of receptor-mediated responses. J. Neurochem., 38 (2), 532-544. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A5, C Fradkin J., et al. 1982. Forskolin stimulation of thyroid adenylate cyclase and cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Endocrinology, 111 (3), 849-856. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Seamon, K., & Daly, J. 1981. Forskolin: A unique diterpene activator of cyclic AMP-generating systems. J. Cyclic Nucleotide Res., 7 (4), 201-224. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A4, C Seamon, K., et al. 1981. Forskolin: A unique diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase in membranes and in intact cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 3363-3367. URL (abstract) (accessed 10.06.2011).

Humulus lupulus (hops)

B, C Dorn, C., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone derived from hops, inhibits proliferation, migration and interleukin-8 expression of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Int. J. Oncol., 36 (2), 435-441. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

B Dorn, C., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol feeding does not impair organ function and homoeostasis in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48 (7), 1890-1897. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Radovic, B., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hops, modulates hepatic expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone distribution and metabolism. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 54 (Suppl. 2), S225-S235. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Ho, Y-C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1465-1468. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Zanoli, P., & Zavatti, M. 2008. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 383–396. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

B Nagasako-Akazome, Y., et al. 2007. Safety evaluation of polyphenols extracted from hop bracts. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (8), 1383-1392. URL (abstract): (accessed 04.16.2011).

C Delmulle, L., et al. 2006. Anti-proliferative properties of prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in human prostate cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine, 13 (9-10), 732-734. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Vanhoecke, B., et al. 2005. Antiinvasive effect of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. Int. J. Cancer, 117 (6), 889-895. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Morin, C., et al. 2005. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep, 28 (11), 1465-1471. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

C Nikolic, D., et al. 2005. Metabolism of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), by human liver microsomes. J. Mass Spectrom., 40 (3), 289–299. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.07.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Radovic, B., et al. 2005. Xanthohumol stimulates iodide uptake in rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 49 (9), 832-836. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Vanhoecke, B., et al. 2005. A safety study of oral tangeretin and xanthohumol administration to laboratory mice. In Vivo, 19 (1), 103-107. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Stevens, J., & Page, J. 2004. Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: To your good health! Phytochemistry, 65 (10), 1317–1330. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Milligan, S., et al. 1999. Identification of a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84 (6), 2249-2252. URL: (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Stevens J., et al. 1999. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 2421-2428. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Schmitz, M., & Jäckel, M. 1998. Comparative study for assessing quality of life of patients with exogenous sleep disorders (temporary sleep onset and sleep interruption disorders) treated with a hops-valerian preparation and a benzodiazepine drug. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 148 (13), 291-298. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).


C Dasgupta, P. 2009. Perchlorate: A cause for iodine deficiency? Environ. Chem., 6 (1), 7–9. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.15.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Zimmermann, M. 2009. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: A review. Am. J.Clin. Nutr., 89 (2), 668S–672S. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.12.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Brownstein, D. 2008. Iodine: Why you need it. Why you can’t live without it, 104. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press.

B, C Dasgupta, P., et al. 2008. Iodine nutrition: Iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1315–1323. URL (PDF): (accessed 05.15.2009).

A1, A2, A3, A5 Kopp, P. 2008. Reduce, recycle, reuse — Iodotyrosine deiodinase in thyroid iodide metabolism. NEJM, 358 (17), 1856–1859. URL: (accessed 05.12.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Patrick, L. 2008. Iodine deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Alt. Med. Rev., 13 (2), 116–127. URL (PDF): (accessed 06.12.2009).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

B, C Hollowell, J., & Haddow, J. 2007. The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States. Public Health Nutr., 10 (12A), 1532–1539; discussion 1540–1541. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.15.2009).

C Blount, B., et al. 2006. Urinary perchlorate and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent and adult men and women living in the United States. Environ. Health Perspect., 114 (12), 1865–1871. URL: (accessed 06.15.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Utiger, R. 2006. Iodine nutrition — more is better. NEJM, 354 (26), 2819–2821. URL: (accessed 06.12.2009).

See also correction: NEJM, 355 (12), 1289. URL: (accessed 06.12.2009).

C Caldwell, K., et al. 2005. Urinary iodine concentration: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002. Thyroid, 15 (7), 692–699. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.15.2009).

A1–A5, B Angermayr, L., & Clar, C. 2004. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. CDSR, 2, CD00819. URL (summary): (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A5, B, C de Benoist, B., et al., eds. 2004. Iodine status worldwide: WHO global database on iodine deficiency. Geneva: World Health Organization. URL (PDF): (accessed 06.11.2009).

B, C Hathcock, J. 2004. Iodine. In Vitamin and Mineral Safety, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. URL (PDF): (accessed 09.29.2011).

C Vermiglio, F., et al. 2004. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in the offspring of mothers exposed to mild–moderate iodine deficiency: A possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89 (12), 60544–6060. URL: (accessed 06.16.2009).

B Wright, S. 2002. US iodine consumption declining. Boston Globe, July 22, 2002, page A3. URL: (accessed 06.15.2009).

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes, 258. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

A1–3, A5, B, C Hollowell, J., et al. 1998. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83 (10), 3401–3408. URL: (accessed 06.12.2009).

A1–A5 Laurenberg, P., et al. 1998. Iodine intake and the pattern of thyroid disorders: A comparative epidemiological study of thyroid abnormalities in the elderly in Iceland and in Jutland, Denmark. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83, 765–769. URL: (accessed 05.19.2009).

A1–A5, B Reinhardt, W., et al. 1998. Effect of small doses of iodine on thyroid function in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis residing in an area of mild iodine deficiency. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 139 (1), 23-28. URL: (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A5, B, C Stanbury, J. 1996. Iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency disorders. In E. Ziegler & L. Filer, eds. Present Knowledge of Nutrition, 7th ed., 378–383. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.

B Chow, C., et al. 1991. Effect of low-dose iodide supplementation on thyroid function in potentially susceptible subjects: Are dietary iodide levels in Britain acceptable? Clin. Endocrinol., 34 (5), 416–423. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1, A2, A3, A5 Melish, J. 1990. Chapter 135. Thyroid Disease. In Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Walker, H., et al., eds. Boston: Butterworths. URL: (accessed 09.29.2011).

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

B, C Bommer, S., et al. 2011. First time proof of sage’s tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes. Adv. Ther., 28 (6), 490-500. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Miguel, G., et al. 2011. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat. Prod. Res., 25 (5), 526-541. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Walch, S., et al. 2011. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Chem. Cent. J., 5, 44. URL (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Lamien-Meda, A., et al. 2010. Investigation of antioxidant and rosmarinic acid variation in the sage collection of the Genebank in Gatersleben. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58 (6), 3813-3819. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B Oniga, I., et al. 2010. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from Romania. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi., 114 (2), 593-595. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Oboh, G., & Henle, T. 2009. Antioxidant and inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves on pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver in vitro. J. Med. Food., 12 (1), 77–84. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Schapowal, A., et al. 2009. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: A randomized double-blind trial. Eur. J. Med. Res., 14 (9), 406-412. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Bozin, B., et al. 2007. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (19), 7879-7885. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04. 2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): (accessed 08.10.2010).

B Fecka, I., & Turek, S. 2007. Determination of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in commercial herbal teas from Lamiaceae: Peppermint, melissa, and sage. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (26), 10908-10917. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Raal, A., et al. 2007. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries. Nat. Prod. Res., 21 (5), 406-411. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Hubbert, M., et al. 2006. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis — a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis. Eur. J. Med. Res., 11 (1), 20-26. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2003. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 28 (1), 53-59. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Miura, K., et al. 2003. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J. AGric. Food Chem., 50 (7), 1845–1851. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Danilenko, M., et al. 2001. Carnosic acid and promotion of monocytic differentiation of HL60-G cells initiated by other agents. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 93 (16), 1224–1233. URL: (accessed 10.07.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Steiner, M., et al. 2001. Carnosic acid inhibits proliferation and augments differentiation of human leukemic cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and retinoic acid. Nutr Cancer, 41 (1-2), 135-44. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.07.2011).

C Zupkó, I., et al. 2001. Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents. Planta Med., 67 (4), 366-368. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Hohmann, J., et al. 1999. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med., 65 (6), 576-578. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

B Perry, N., et al. 1999. Essential oils from Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis I.): Variations among individuals, plant parts, seasons, and sites. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47 (5), 2048–2054. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C De Leo, V., et al. 1998. [Treatment of neurovegetative menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent.] Minerva Ginecol., 50 (5), 207-211. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Wang, M., et al. 1998. Antioxidative phenolic compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis). J. Agric. Food Chem., 46 (12), 4869–4873. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Cuvelier, M., et al. 1994. Antioxidant constituents in sage (Salvia officinalis). J. Agric. Food Chem., 42 (3), 665–669. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).


A1–3, A5 Kishosha, P., et al. 2011. Selenium deficiency a factor in endemic goiter persistence in sub-Saharan Africa. World. J. Surg., 35 (7), 1540–1545. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.30.2011).

A1–3, A5, B Marcocci, C., et al. 2011. NEJM, 364, 1920-1931. Selenium and the course of mild Graves’ orbitopathy URL: (accessed 08.25.2011).

C Combs, G., et al. 2009. Effects of selenomethionine supplementation on selenium status and thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89 (6), 1808–1814. URL: (accessed 09.30.2011).

B, C Schrauzer, G., & Surai, P. 2009. Selenium in human and animal nutrition: Resolved and unresolved issues. A partly historical treatise in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the biological essentiality of selenium, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Schwarz (1914-1978) on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of his death. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 29 (1), 2-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B Patrick, L. 2008. Iodine deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Alt. Med. Rev., 13 (2), 116–127. URL (PDF): (accessed 06.12.2009).

A1–A3, B Rayman, M., et al. 2008. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87 (2), 370–378. URL: (accessed 09.30.2011).

C Reid, M., et al. 2008. The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment. Nutr. Cancer., 60 (2), 155–163. URL (abstract): h (accessed 09.30.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Schomburg, L., & Köhrle, J. 2008. On the importance of selenium and iodine metabolism for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and human health. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 52 (11), 1235-1246. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Robin, C. 2007. Iodine Remedies: Secrets from the Sea, 36. Madison, WI: Service to the Good of Life. URL (PDF): (accessed 05.18.2009).

B, C Schroeder, J., et al. 2005. Safety and intestinal tolerance of high-dose enteral antioxidants and glutamine peptides after upper gastrointestinal surgery. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59 (2), 307-310. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Derumeaux, H., et al. 2003. Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35- to 60-year-old French adults. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 148 (3), 309-315. URL: (accessed 10.04.02011).

A1–A3, A5, B Zimmermann, M., & Köhrle, J. 2002. The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: Biochemistry and relevance to public health. Thyroid, 12 (10), 867-878. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B Berger, M., et al. 2001. Influence of selenium supplements on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: A placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med., 27 (1), 91–100. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.13.2009).

A1–A3, A5 Erdogan, M., et al. 2001. Endemic goiter, thiocyanate overload, and selenium status in school-age children. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 79 (2), 121-130. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.30.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Giray, B., et al. 2001. Status of selenium and antioxidant enzymes of goitrous children is lower than healthy controls and nongoitrous children with high iodine deficiency. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 82 (1–3), 35-52. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.29.2011).

B, C Schrauzer, G. 2001. Nutritional selenium supplements: Product types, quality, and safety. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20 (1), 1-4. URL: (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Arthur, J., & Beckette, G. 1999. Trace elements and thyroid function. Br. Med. Bull., 55 (3), 658–668. URL: (accessed 05.13.2009).

B, C Hathcock, J. 1997. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66 (2), 427-437. URL: (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Clark, L., et al. 1996. Effect of selenium supplementation supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA, 276, 1957–1968. URL: (accessed 09.30.2011).

B Whanger, P., et al. 1996. Metabolism of subtoxic levels of selenium in animals and humans. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci., 26 (2), 99-113. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Olivieri, O., et al. 1995. Low selenium status in the elderly influences thyroid hormones. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 89 (6) 637–642. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.30.2011).

B Yang, G., & Zhou, R. 1994. Further observations on the human maximum safe dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area of China. J. Trace Elem. Electrolytes Health Dis., 8 (3-4), 159-165. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Blot, W., et al. 1993. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J. NatI. Cancer Inst., 85 (18), 1483–1492. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.30.2011).

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A4, C Rannem, T., et al. 1992. Selenium status in patients with Crohn’s disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 56 (5), 933–937. URL: (accessed 09.30.2011).

A4, C Brown, M., et al. 1986. Proximal muscle weakness and selenium deficiency associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 43 (4), 549-554. URL: (accessed 10.04.2011).

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Our Omega-3s is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Omega-3s.

Bays, H. 2007. Safety considerations with omega-3 fatty acid therapy. Am. J. Cardiol., 99 (6A), 35C–43C.

Bourre, J. 2007. Dietary omega–3 fatty acids for women. Biomed. Pharmacother., 61 (3), 105–112.

Conklin, S., et al. 2007. Serum w-3 fatty acids are associated with variation in mood, personality and behavior in hypercholesterolemic community volunteers. Psych. Res., 152, 1–10.

Goldberg, R., & Katz, J. 2007. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain, 129, 210–223.

Nguyen, C., et al. 2007. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids decrease intraocular pressure with age by increasing aqueous outflow. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 48 (2), 756–762.

Natural Standard Monograph. 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. URL (limited access):

Townend, B., et al. 2007. Dietary macronutrient intake and five-year incident cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 143, 932–939.

Appleton, K., et al. 2006. Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: Systematic review of published trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1308–1316.

Black, H., & Rhodes, L. 2006. The potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cancer Detect. Prev., 30 (3), 224–232.

Creuzot, C., et al. 2006. [Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids.] J. Fr. Ophtalmol., 29 (8), 868–873.

Freeman, M., et al. 2006. Omega-3 fatty acids: Evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J. Clin. Psych., 67 (12), 1954–1967.

German, O., et al. 2006. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents apoptosis of retina photoreceptors by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. J. Neurochem., 98, 1507–1520.

Kamphuis, M., et al. 2006. Depression and cardiovascular mortality: A role for n-3 fatty acids? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1513–1517.

Kim, H-H., et al. 2006. Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo. J. Lipid Res., 47, 921–930.

Lamotte, M., et al. 2006. A multi-country health-economic evaluation of highly concentrated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 74–82.

Menéndez, J., et al. 2006. HER2 (erbB-2)-targeted effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), in breast cancer cells: The “fat features” of the “Mediterranean diet” as an “anti-HER2 cocktail”. Clin. Transl. Oncol., 8 (11), 812–820.

Nemets, H., et al. 2006. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: A controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 163 (6), 1098–1100.

Seddon, J., et al. 2006. Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration. The US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol., 124, 995–1001.

Severus, W. 2006. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 69–74.

Walzer, B., et al. 2006. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augments brachial artery dilation and blood flow during forearm contraction. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 97, 347–354.

Berbert, A., et al. 2005. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition, 21, 131–136.

Kim, H-H., et al. 2005. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J. Lipid Res., 46, 1712–1720.

Lerman, R. 2005. Essential fatty acids. In Textbook of Functional Medicine, ed. D. S. Jones & S. Quinn, pp. 420–433. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

Covington, M. 2004. Omega-3 fatty acids. Am. Fam. Phys., 70 (1), 133–140.

Iribarren, C., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young adults — the CARDIA study. Eur. J. Clinc. Nutr., 58, 24–31.

Saldeen, P., & Saldeen, T. 2004. Women and omega-3 fatty acids. Obstet. Gynecol., 59 (10), 722–730.

US FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2004. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA-823-R-04-005. URL:

Harris, W., et al. 2003. Cardiovascular disease and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 14 (1), 9–14.

Helland, I., et al. 2003. Maternal supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics, 111 (1), E39-E44.

Logan, A. 2003. Neurobehavioral aspects of omega-3 fatty acids: Possible mechanisms and therapeutic value in major depression. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (4), 410–425.

Zanarini, M., & Frankenburg, F. 2003. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 160, 167–169.

Bagga, D., et al. 2002. Long-chain n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. Nutr. Cancer, 42, 180–185.

Carrie, I., et al. 2002. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich phospholipid supplementation: Effect on behavior, learning ability, and retinal function in control and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient old mice. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (1):43–52.

Hu, F., et al. 2002. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA, 287 (14), 1815–1821.

Nestel, P. et al. 2002. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 326–330.

Chen, L., et al. 2000. Effect of stable fish oil on arterial thrombogenesis, platelet aggregation, and superoxide dismutase activity. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 35 (3), 502–505.

Curtis, C., et al. 2000. n-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (2), 721–724.

Stark, K., et al. 2000. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72, 389–394.

Yamada, T., et al. 2000. Atherosclerosis and w-3 fatty acids in the populations of a fishing village and a farming village in Japan. Atherosclerosis, 153, 469–481.

Austin, M., et al. 1998. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am. J. Cardiol., 81 (4A), 7B–12B.

Kruger, M., et al. 1998. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging [Milano], 10 (5), 385–394.

Berry, E. 1997. Dietary fatty acids in the management of diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66 (4 Suppl.), S991–S997.

Bruckner, G. 1997. Microcirculation, vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids: An overview. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 415, 195–208.

Katayama, Y. Effect of long-term administration of ethyl eicosapentate (EPA-E) on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Brain Res., 761 (2), 300–305.

Belluzzi, A., et al. 1996. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. NEJM, 3334 (24), 1557–1560.

Caygill, C., et al. 1996. Fat, fish oil and cancer. Br. J. Cancer, 74, 159–164.

Harel, Z., et al. 1996. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J. Obstet. Gynecol., 171 (4), 1335–1338.

Lau, C-S., et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil on plasma fibrinolysis in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol., 13 (1), 87–90.

Suzukawa, et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil fatty acids on low density lipoprotein size, oxidizability, and uptake by macrophages. J. Lipid Res., 36, 473–484.

Geusens, P., et al. 1994. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12–month, double-blind, controlled study. Arthritis Rheum., 37 (6), 824–829.

Kankaanpää, P., et al. 1993. Dietary fatty acids and allergy. Ann. Med., 31 (4), 282–287.

Escobar, S., et al. 1992. Topical fish oil in psoriasis — a controlled and blind study. Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 17 (3), 159–162.

Simopoulos, A. 1991. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 54 (3), 438–463.

Ellis, E., et al. 1990. Effect of fish oil n-3 fatty acids on cerebral microcirculation. Am. J. Physiol., 258 (6 Pt. 2), H1780–H1785.

Haglund, O., et al. 1990. Effects of a new fluid fish oil concentrate, ESKIMO-3, on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure. J. Intern. Med., 227 (5), 347–353.

van der Temple, H., et al. 1990. Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 49, 76–80.

Black, K., et al. 1984. Eicosapentaenoic acid: Effect on brain prostaglandins, cerebral blood flow and edema in ischemic gerbils. Stroke, 15 (1), 65–69.

Essential Nutrients

Our Essential Nutrients is a comprehensive nutritional supplement that is doctor-formulated to be complete, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information about the clinical basis for using our Essential Nutrients.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Grobbee, D., & van der Graaf, Y. 2007. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas, 56, 273–279.

Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 422–429.

Lin, J., et al. 2007. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch. Intern. Med., 167, 1050–1059.

Pendas–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75, 193–207.

Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 775–782.

Schurgers, L., et al. 2007. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: Comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109, 3279-3283.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 18–28.

Colli, E., et al. 2006. BXL628, a novel vitamin D3 analog arrests prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized clinical trial. Eur. Urol., 49, 82–86.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Garland, C., et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Pub. Health, 96, 252–261.

Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. 2006. Chapter 174: Herpes Simplex. In Textbook of Natural Medicine, vol. 2, 1723–1726. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingston.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Adams, J., & Pepping, J. 2005. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm, 62, 1574–1581.

Akbaraly, N., et al. 2005. Selenium and mortality in the elderly: Results from the EVA study. Clin. Chem., 51, 2117–2123.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293, 2257–2264.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

DiSilvestro, R. 2005. Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements. NY: CRC Press.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Gropper, S., et al. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Mathieu, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 48, 1247–1257.

Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37–46.

Simon, L. 2005. Osteoporosis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 21, 603–629.

Srivastava, A., & Mehdi, M. 2005. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diab. Med., 22, 2–13.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134, 225S–230S.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291, 1999–2006.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2004. Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 150, 591–603.

Flynn, C. 2004. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am. Fam. Phys., 69, 2822–2823.

Geleijnse, J., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr., 134, 3100–3105.

Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 362–371.

Hyun, T., et al. 2004. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 715–721.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Millen, A., et al. 2004. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidem., Biomark. & Prevent., 13, 1042–1051.

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Nielsen, F., & Milne, D. 2004. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 703–710.

Pattison, D., et al. 2004. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: Prospective nested case-control study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 63, 843–847.

Shekelle, P., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 19, 380–389.

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Vermeer, C., et al. 2004. Beyond deficiency: Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur. J. Nutr., 43, 325–335.

VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1095–1109.

Yasuda, S., et al. 2004. Suppressive effects of ascorbate derivatives on ultraviolet-B-induced injury in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 40, 71–73.

Bodiwala, D., et al. 2003. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Studies on interactions between UVR exposure and skin type. Carcinogenesis, 24, 711–717.

Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57, 258–261.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2003. Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog. Endocrinol., 144, 3046–3057.

Devirian, T., & Volpe, S. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43, 219–231.

Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95, 1765–1771.

Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133, 98–101.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Kohlmeier, M., Ed. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. Food International and Technology International Series. NY: Academic Press.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88, 1523–1527.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62.

Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326, 469.

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