Herbal Equilibrium

Our Herbal Equilibrium is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, reviews and studies, arranged in order of ingredient and recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Herbal Equilibrium. Click on the ingredients listed below to review pertinent studies and articles.


Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera / W. ashwagandha)

Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/11/65 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g12001h123tk2876/ (accessed 09.06.2011).

Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182915 (accessed 09.23.2011).

“CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant.”

Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16101 (accessed 01.17.2011).

Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528765 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116319/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.23.2011).

Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/7/2298.long (accessed 02.23.2011).

Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/11/4/269.pdf (accessed 09.23.2011).

“…As modern medicine continues to expand, so do the uses of botanical medicines. Withania somnifera shows great potential as a safe and effective antineoplastic agent.”

Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293277 (accessed 02.23.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/9/2/211.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.06.2011).

Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75, 547–555. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895672 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12551750 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Ilayperuma, I., et al. 2002. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Asian J. Androl., 4, 295–298. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12508132 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rajpal, V. 2002. Standardization of botanicals. New Delhi: Eastern Publishers.

Abdel–Magied, E., et al. 2001. The effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development in immature Wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 75 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282435 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536383 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536389 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, B., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. Phytomedicine, 8, 283–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11515718 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dunn. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL (PDF): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.prxy3.ursus.maine.edu/doi/10.1002/ptr.858/pdf (accessed 02.24.2011).

Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194174 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720789 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/5/4/334.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075127 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1, 16–19.

Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9017665 (accessed 02.23.2011).

al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/143685 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1660034 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20, 29–35.


Black cohosh (Cimicifuga / Actaea racemosa)

Jiang, B., et al. 2011. Phytochemical fingerprinting to thwart black cohosh adulteration: A 16 Actaea species analysis. Phytochem. Anal. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pca.1285/abstract (accessed 03.14.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20085176 (accessed 01.08.2010).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19527300 (accessed 02.02.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19102512 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19347706 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585461 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18340277 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18691839 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257142 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18592868 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593379 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chu, W. et al. 2007. Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis, 28 (10), 2139–2142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434921 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17191056 (accessed 01.18.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354167 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205521 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635580701506968 (accessed 11.28.2007).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17275226 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17602247 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17416109 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16477892 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Li, J., & Yu, Z. 2006. Cimicifugae rhizoma: From origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (24), 2927–2951. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073639 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16360941 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179056 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): http://www.annals.org/content/147/5/347.1.full.pdf+html (accessed 10.17.2007).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782922 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17219796 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837890 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16039414 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15898823 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15969244 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020404 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927480 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565808 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15356412 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110078 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/179_07_061003/letters_061003_fm-2.html (accessed 02.24.2011).

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: http://www.metaproteomicslabs.com/position_papers/black%20cohosh%20position%20paper.pdf (accessed 01.25.2011).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609560 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851513 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): http://eje-online.org/cgi/reprint/149/4/351 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S9–S20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609555 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: Effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S67–S77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609561 (accessed 02.24.2011)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/sobi2.html?sobi2Task=dd_download&fid=193 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12408370 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11975864 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557811 (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244879 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_08_211002/whi10119_fm.html (accessed 2.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352967 (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1798794 (accessed 06.27.2007).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.


Chastetree berry (Vitex agnus–castus)

[No author.] 2009. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 14 (2), 67–70. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/sobi2.html?sobi2Task=dd_download&fid=32 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257142 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17350238 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454163 (accessed 07.06.2007).

Webster, D., et al. 2006. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: Implication for its use in PMS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106 (2), 216-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439081 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Tandon, V., et al. 2006. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 124 (4), 447-450. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17159267 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Villasenor, I., & Lamadrid, M. 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (1-2), 128-131. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration. 2005. Chasteberry. In C. Ulbricht & E. Basch (Eds.), Natural standard herb and supplement reference: Evidence-based clinical reviews. NY: Mosby.

Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16156340 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Zhang, C. et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98 (3), 295-300. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15814262 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14974442 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Aron, D., et al. 2004. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland, 125–1260. In F. Greenspan & D. Gardner (Eds.), Basic & clinical endocrinology. Columbus, OH: McGraw–Hill.

Atmaca, M., et al. 2003. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 18 (3), 191–195. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12672170 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Blumenthal, et al. 2003. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Chopin, L. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003), 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Dharmasiri, M., et al. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87 (2-3), 199-206. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860308 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Girman, A., et al. 2003. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 188 (5 Suppl.), S56-S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12748452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Jarry, H., et al. 2003. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med., 69, 945–947.

Lucks, B. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003) 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Ohyama, K., et al. 2003. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (1), 10-18. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520164 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) — pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine, 10 (4), 248-357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809367 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B., et al. 2002. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A self-care survey. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 8, 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353616 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Liu, J., et al. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49 (5), 2472-2479. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11368622 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Schellenberg, 2001. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322, 134–137. URL: http://www.bmj.com/content/322/7279/134.long (accessed 02.24.2011).

Berger, et al. 2000. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 264, 150–153. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11129515 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Halaska, M., et al. 1999. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast, 8 (4), 175-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14731436 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lauritzen, et al. 1997. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: Controlled double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine, 4, 183–189.

Cahill, D., et al 1994. Multiple follicular development associated with herbal medicine. Human Reprod., 9, 1469–1470. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7989506 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Jarry, H., et al. 1994. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: Direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 102, 448–454. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7890021 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Milewicz, A., et al. 1993. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.] Arzneim.–Forsch./Drug Res., 43, 752–756. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8369008 (accessed 10.26.2011).


Kudzu (Pueraria mirifica)

Rountree, R. 2010. Roundoc Rx: Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Boonchird, C., et al. 2009. Differential binding with ERalpha and ERbeta of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.,43 (2), 195–200. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009007500026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2009. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 42 (9), 816–823. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2009. The effect of Pueraria mirifica on cytologic and urodynamic findings in ovariectomized rats. Menopause, 16 (2), 350–356. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19098688 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sutjit, W. 2008. Correlation of antioxidant activity and major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata tubers. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 38–43. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890070 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2008. Variance of estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant. Maturitas, 61 (4), 350–357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980816 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chindewa, R., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica, phytoestrogen-induced change in synaptophysin expression via estrogen receptor in rat hippocampal neuron. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 91 (2), 208–214. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18389986 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependent breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2008. Effects and safety of Pueraria mirifica on lipid profiles and biochemical markers of bone turnover rates in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15 (3), 530–535. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18202589 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Okamura, S., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor subtypes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 216 (4), 341–351. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/216/4/216_341/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Sookvanichsilip, N., et al. 2008. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract of Pueraria mirifica. Fitoterapia, 79 (7–8), 509–514. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18621111 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Urosopan, N., et al. 2008. Preventative effects of Pueraria mirifica on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Maturitas, 59 (2), 137–148. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18313241 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Challenges in the conduct of Thai herbal scientific study: Efficacy and safety of phytoestrogen, Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Keur Kao), phase I, in the alleviation of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (7), 1274–1280. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17710964 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Efficacy comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM) against conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase III study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (9), 1720–1726. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17957910 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 385–393. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_385/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica in comparison with Pueraria lobata. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 43 (2), 428–434.

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Pretreatment with phytoestrogen-rich plant decreases breast tumor incidence and exhibits lower profile of mammary ERalpha and ERbeta. Maturitas, 58 (2), 174-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17870258 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sriwatcharuakul, S., 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the 1-year-cultivated phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica. Biosci. Biotechnol Biochem., 71 (10), 2527–2533. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/71/10/71_2527/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Jaroenporn, S., et al. 2007. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (5), 995-1005. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/5/53_995/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2007. Effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal health. Menopause, 14 (5), 919–924. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17415017 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Trisomboon, H., et al. 2007. Assessment of urinary gonadotropin and steroid hormone profiles of female cynomolgus monkeys after treatment with Pueraria mirifica. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 395-403. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_395/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Wong, R., & Rabie, B. 2007. Effect of puerarin on bone formation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 15 (8), 894–899. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17379543 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Li, W.-Z., et al. 2006. [Studies on the effect of extracts of several Chinese herbal medicines and other medicines on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.] Zhong Yao Cai., 29 (8), 816–818. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17076243 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2006. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107 (3), 354-360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730147 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Pawlyk, A., et al. 2006. Effects of the 5–HT2A antagonist mirtazapine in rat models of thermoregulation. Brain Res., 1123 (1), 135–144.

Penetar, D., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetic profile of the isoflavone puerarin after acute and repeated administration of a novel kudzu extract to human volunteers. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 12, 543–548.

Zhang, S., et al. 2006. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin. J. Nutr. Biochem., 17 (7), 485–491.

Chiang, H.–M., et al. 2005. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 209 (3), 263–268.

Kang, K.-A., et al. 2005. Protective effect of Puerariae radix on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and streptozotocin. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (7), 1154–1160.

Kwon, H-J., et al. 2005. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (35), 5512–5516. URL (abstract): http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5512.pdf (accessed 01.19.2011).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65.

Zhang, C., et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98, 295–300.

Zhang, Y., et al. 2005. Analysis of the estrogenic components in kudzu root by bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 94, 375–381.

Benlhabib, E., et al. 2004. Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol. J. Med. Food, 7 (2), 168–179.

Chen, W., et al. 2004. Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 70 (2), 113–116.

Chueh, F., et al. 2004. Peurarin acts through brain seratonergic mechanisms to induce thermal effects. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 420–427.

Kim, O., et al. 2004. Establishment of in vitro test system for the evaluation of the estrogenic activities of natural products. Arch. Pharm. Res., 27, 906–911.

Lamlertkittikul, S., & Chandeying, V. 2004. Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 87 (1), 33–40.

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2004. Different effects of Pueraria mirifica, an herb containing phytoestrogens, on LH and FSH secretion in gonadectomized female and male rats. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 428–435. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/96/4/96_428/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, J., et al. 2004. Effects of Radix Puerariae flavones on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats. World J. Gastroenterol., 10 (13), 1967–1970. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/10/1967.asp (accessed 01.04.2010).

Xu, X., et al. 2004. Effects of puerarin on learning-memory and amino acid transmitters of brain in ovariectomized mice. Planta Med., 70 (7), 627–631.

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hsu, F., et al. 2003. Antihyperglycemic effect of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Nat. Prod., 66 (6), 788–792.

Wang, X., et al. 2003. Puerariae radix prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. J. Bone Miner. Metab., 21, 268–275.

Woo, J., et al. 2003. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause. Menopause, 10 (4), 352–361.

Zheng, G., et al. 2002. [Estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata]. Zhong Yao Cai, 15 (8), 566–568.



Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294203 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/all/passionflower.asp (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21089181 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526-532. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=19799991 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11-48. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175810 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148-153. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=20051259 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382514 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185920 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301055 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077264 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/33/6/33_1015/_article (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441067 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216234 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33-40. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048610 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256-RA262. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865069 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18478816 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769-1773. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006051 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577-583. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051605 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728-1732. URL: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/6/1728.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008111170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2322858/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612941 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966676 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308-314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196350 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17253512 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/26 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703-716. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562566 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1-2), 39-45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693706 (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984105 > (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15882936 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1-23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261959 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410-2420. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/8/2410 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982998> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581-583. URL: http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/32/6/581.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935433> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573641/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165335 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511112 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283-291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165186 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435-441. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065157 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11679027 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001b. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 363–367. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x/abstract (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia, 72 (6), 698-702. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543974 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Correct identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a promising herbal anxiolytic and sedative. J. Med. Food, 4 (3), 137-144. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639407 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Fisher, A., et al. 2000. Toxicity of Passiflora incarnata L. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 38 (1), 63–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696928 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Bourin, M., et al. 1997. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental. Clin. Pharmacol., 11 (2), 127-132. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-8206.1997.tb00179.x/abstract (accessed 01.27.2011).

Salgueiro, J., et al. 1997. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 58 (4), 887-891. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9408191> (accessed 01.28.2011).

Soulimani, R., et al. 1997. Behavioral effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J. Ethnopharmacol., 57 (1), 11–20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9234160 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Rommelspacher, H., et al. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 252 (1), 51-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149995 (accessed 01.27.2011).

Wolfman, C., et al. 1994. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47 (1), 1-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7906886 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Medina, J., et al. 1990. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem. Pharmacol., 40 (10), 2227-2231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173925 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Speroni, E., & Minghetti, A. 1988. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med., 54 (6), 588–491. URL (abstract): https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2006-962525 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4421168 (accessed 01.28.2011).


Red clover (Trifolium pratense)

Lipovac, M., et al. 2011. The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Gynecol. Endocrinol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870906 (accessed 08.31.2011).

Chen, Y, et al. 2010. Biochanin A induction of sulfotransferases in rats. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 24 (2), 102–114. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391625 (accessed 09.17.2010).

El Touny, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A reduces drug-induced p75NTR expression and enhances cell survival: A new in vitro assay for screening inhibitors of p75NTR expression. Rejuvenation Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818983 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Lipovac, M., et al. 2010. Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts. Maturitas, 65 (3), 258–261. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948385 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Rountree, R. 2010. RoundocRx. Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL (abstract): ://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 03.10.2010).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL (PDF): http://www.isohh.org/ebooks/0110-athm11.pdf (accessed 01.08.2010).

Sklenickova, O., etal. 2010. Selective growth inhibitory effect of biochanin A against intestinal tract colonizing bacteria. Molecules, 15 (3), 1270–1279. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20335979 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Thors, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A, a naturally occurring inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br. J. Pharmacol., 160 (3), 549–560. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590565 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kawakita, S., et al. 2009. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Clin. Interv. Aging, 4, 91–100. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685230/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mu, H., et al. 2009. Research on antioxidant effects and estrogenic effect of formononetin from Trifolium pratense (red clover). Phytomedicine, 16 (4), 314–319. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18757188(accessed 01.04.2009).

Pakalapati, G., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on gene and protein expression profiles in liver of ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine, 16 (9), 845–855. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409770 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Sehdev, V., et al. 2009. Biochanin A modulates cell viability, invasion, and growth promoting signaling pathways in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells. J. Oncol., 121458. URL: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2009/121458.html (accessed 09.17.2010).

Terzic, M., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 35 (6), 1091–1095. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20144173 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Adaikan, P., et al. 2008. Efficacy of red clover isoflavones in the menopausal rabbit model. Fertil. Steril., 92 (6), 2008–2013. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18973881 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern ToxicoI., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Medjakovic, S., & Jungbauer, A. 2008. Red clover isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin are potent ligands of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 108 (1–2), 171–177. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060767 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Mense, S., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer prevention: Possible mechanisms of action. Environ. Health Perspect., 116 (4), 426–433. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291001/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mishra, P., et al. 2008. Chemoprevention of mammary tumorigenesis and chemomodulation of the antioxidative enzymes and peroxidative damage in prepubertal Sprague Dawley rats by Biochanin A. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 312 (1–2), 1–9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18273562 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2008. Biochanin A inhibits breast cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. Pharmaceutical Res., 25 (9), 2158–2163. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18454305 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Oseni, T., et al. 2008. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens. Planta Med., 74 (13), 1656-1665. URL: http://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0028-1088304 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Overk, C., et al. 2008. In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover), Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. Chern. Biol. Interact., 176, 30-39. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2574795/?tool=pubmed> (accessed 01.04.2010.

Powles, T., et al. 2008. Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int., 14 (1), 6–12. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18380954 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, S., et al. 2008. Variable isoflavone content of red clover products affects intestinal disposition of biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, and daidzein. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (3), 287–297. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771774/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wang, Y., et al. 2008. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression. Br. J. Nutr., 99 (2), 303–310. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761019 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Chan M., et al. 2007. Oestrogen receptor alpha is required for biochanin A-induced apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Br. J. Nutr., 98 (3), 534–539. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17532863 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Coon, J., et al. 2007. Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 14 (2–3), 153–159.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17239573 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Friedman, J., et al. 2007. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit. Care, 7 (1), 76–80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634840 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kaminska, B., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens alter cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells. Acta Vet. Hung., 55 (3), 359–367. URL (abstract): http://www.akademiai.com/content/m9402351057v1077/ (accessed 09.21.2010).

Lethaby, A., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (4), CD001395. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17943751 (accessed 09.17.2010)

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 51 (3), 317–323. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17340576 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of flavonoids genistein and biochanin A on gene expression and their metabolism in human mammary cells. Nutr. Cancer., 57 (1), 48-58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516862 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Occhiuto, F., et al. 2007. Effects of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on experimental osteoporosis. Phytother. Res., 21 (2), 130–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17117453 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Rimoldi, G., et al. 2007. Effects of chronic genistein treatment in mammary gland, uterus, and vagina. Environ. Health Perspect., 115 (Suppl. 1), 62–68. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174401/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2006. Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: A literature review. Menopause, 13 (2), 251–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645539 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2005. Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceæ) isoflavones and estrogenic activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (4), 1277–1282. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p457.html (accessed 12.11.2009).

Geller, S., & Studee, L. 2006. Soy and red clover for midlife and aging. Climacteric, 9 (4), 245–263. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1780039/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Han, E., et al. 2006. Effect of biochanin A on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (7), 570–576. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903077 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Imhof, M., et al. 2006. Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 55 (1), 76–81.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513301 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the isoflavone biochanin A in rats. AAPS J., 8 (3), E433–E442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761049/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Nelson, H., et al. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 295 (17), 2057–2071. URL: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/295/17/2057 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Park, J., et al. 2006. Up-regulation of interleukin-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation in T cells by biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 212 (3), 188–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169028 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Rice, S., et al. 2006. Phytoestrogens and their low dose combinations inhibit mRNA expression and activity of aromatase in human granulosa-luteal cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 101 (4–5), 2160150225. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965912 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Schrepfer, S., ET AL. 2006. The selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist biochanin A shows vasculoprotective effects without uterotrophic activity. Menopause, 13 (3), 489–499. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16735947 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Tsao, R., et al. 2006. Isoflavone profiles of red clovers and their distribution in different parts harvested at different growing stages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (16), 5797–5805. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881680 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wang, H-P., et al. 2006. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of the phyto-oestrogen biochanin A on rat thoracic aorta. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., 3, 2244–2247. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17282679 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Beck, V., et al. 2005. Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: An alternative tohttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876415 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hidalgo, L. 2005. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 21 (5), 257–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373244(accessed 01.04.2010).

Lee, K-H., & Choi, E-M. 2005. Biochanin A stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced production of inflammatory mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (10), 1948–1953. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/10/28_1948/_article (accessed 09.20.2010).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98-108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16189949 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Simoncini, T., et al. 2005. Activation of nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells by red clover extracts. Menopause, 12 (1), 69–77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15668603 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Somjen, D., et al. 2005. Membranal effects of phytoestrogens and carboxy derivatives of phytoestrogens on human vascular and bone cells: New insights ased on studies with carboxy-biochanin A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 93 (2–5), 293–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860273 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165]. Breast Cancer Res., 6 (3), R170–R179.ver-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/R170 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 326–333. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/79/2/326 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Campbell, M., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v58/n1/full/1601764a.html (accessed 09.20.2010).

Huntley, A. 2004. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. J. Br. Menopause Soc., 10 (4), 162–165. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15667753 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Krebs, E., et al. 2004. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Obstet. Gynecol., 104 (10), 824–836. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458907 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Lam, A., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover isoflavones on cox-2 activity in murine and human monocyte/macrophage cells. Nutr. Cancer, 49 (1), 89–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456640 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Piersen, C., 2004. Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: A phase I red clover extract as a model. Curr. Med. Chem., 11 (11), 1361–1374. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15180571 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Powles, T. 2004. Isoflavones and women’s health. Breast Cancer Res., 6, 140–142. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/140 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Roberts, D., et al. 2004. Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover). J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (21), 6623–6632. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479032 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Blakesmith, S., et al. 2003. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 89 (4), 467–474. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12654164 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Chan, H., et al. 2003. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A modulates the biotransformation pathways of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Br. (1), 87–92. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844379 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mallis, L., et al. 2003. Determination of rat oral bioavailability of soy-derived phytoestrogens using an automated on-column extraction procedure and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 796, 71–86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14552818 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Tice, J., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290 (2), 207–214. URL: >http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/290/2/207 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Abebe, W. 2002. Herbal medication: Potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 27 (6), 391–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472978 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Adlercreutz, J. 2002. Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lacet Oncol., 3 (6), 364–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12107024 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Burdette, J., et al. 2002. Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. J. Nutr., 132 (1), 27–30. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/132/1/27 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Nelsen, J., et al. 2002. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) monograph: A clinical decision support tool. J. Herb. Pharm., 2 (3), 49–72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277090 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Peter, H. et al. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas., 42 (3), 187-193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042(accessed 01.19.2011).

van de Weijer, P., & Barentsen, R. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas, 42 (3), 187–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Clifton–Bligh, P., et al. 2001. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause, 8 (4), 259–265. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449083 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Dornstauder, E., et al. 2001. Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 78 (1), 67–75. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11530286 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Fugh–Berman, A., & Kronenberg, F. 2001. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) for menopausal women: Current state of knowledge. Menopause, 8 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528359 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Hale G., et al. 2001. A double-blind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Menopause, 8, 338-346. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528360 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ashby, J., et al. 1999. Induction of hyperplasia and increased DNA content in the uterus of immature rats exposed to coumestrol. Environ. Health Perspect., 107 (10), 819–822. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566597/?tool=pubmed (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hsu, J–T., et al. 1999. Effects of the dietary phytoestrogen biochanin A on cell growth in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10 (9), 510–517. URL (abstract): http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1984990 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Boyd, N., et al. 1998. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers, 7 (12), 1133-1144. URL: http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/7/12/1133.long (accessed 01.19.2011).

Kelly, G., et al. 1998. Standardized red clover extract clinical monograph, pp 3–12. Seattle, WA: Natural Products Research Consultants, Inc.

Zava, D., et al. 1998. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217 (3), 369–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9492350 (accessed 08.24.2010).


Wild yam ( Dioscorea villosa)

Yoshikawa, M., et al. 2007. Medicinal flowers. XII. (1). New spirostane-type steroid saponins with antidiabetogenic activity from Borassus flabellifer. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 55 (2), 308–316.

Jeon, J., et al. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (5), 348–353.

Sarchielli, P., et al. 2006. Practical considerations for the treatment of elderly patients with migraine. Drugs Aging, 23 (6), 461–489.

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Wu, W., et al. 2005. Estrogenic effect of yam ingestion in healthy postmenopausal women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24, 235–243.

[No authors listed.] 2004. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) root extract. Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (Suppl. 2), 49–54.

Rahmintoola, H., et al. 2004. Reduction in the therapeutic intensity of abortive migraine drug use during ACE inhibition therapy — a pilot study. Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf., 13 (1), 41–47.

Benghuzzi, H., et al. 2003. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats. Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 39, 335–340.

Kwon, C., et al. 2003. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 67 (7), 1451–1456.

Hsu, F., et al. 2002. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50 (21) 6109-6113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12358488 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Bender, W. 1995. ACE inhibitors for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Headache, 35 (8), 470–471.


Arginelle is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Arginelle.

B Vitamins (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Pantothenic Acid)

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Baily, S. E. and Ayling, J. E. 2009. The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 106(35): 15424-15429. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902072106. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730961/?tool=pubmed (accessed 5/14/2012).

Baker, H., et al. 1975. Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamin and vitamin B6. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28, 1377–1380.

Bart, S. Sr., et al. 2012. Folate status and homocysteine levels during a 24-week oral administration of folate-containign oral contraceptive: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, US-based multicenter study. Contraception. 85(1): 42-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067790 (accessed 5/15/2012).

Batra, V., et al. 2010. Enhanced one-carbon flux towards DNA methylation: Effect of dietary methyl supplements against gamma-radiation-induced epigenetic modicationas. Chem Biol Interac., 183(3): 425-33. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19931232 (Accessed 5/15/2012).

Bird, L. M., et al. 2011. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet A., 155A(12): 2956-63. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34297. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002941 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Cagnacci, A., et al. 2009. High-dose short-term folate administration modifies ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. A placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63(10): 1266-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19603054 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.

Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

Davis, B., et al. 1982. Enhanced absorption of oral vitamin B12 from a resin ascorbate administered to normal subjects. Manip. Physiol. Ter., 5, 123–127.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Fava, M., and Mischoulon, D. 2009. Folate in depression: efficacy, safety, differences in formulations, and clinical issues. J Clin Psychiatry. 70 Supple 5: 12-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19909688 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Godfrey, P. S., et al. 1990. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet, 336(8712): 392-5. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1974941 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Greenberg, J. A., and Bell, S. J. 2011. Multivitamin Supplementation During Pregnancy: Emphasis on Folic Acid and L-Methylfolate. Rev Obstet Gynecol., 4 (3-4): 126-7. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250974/?tool=pubmed (accessed 5/14/2012).

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305

Kelly, P., et al. 1997. Unmetabolized folic acid in serum: acute studies in subjects consuming fortified food and supplements. Am J Clin Nutr., 65(6): 1790-5. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9174474 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.

Lamers, Y., et al. 2006. Red blood cell folate concentrations increase more after supplementation with [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate than with folic acid in women of childbearing age. Am J Clin Nutr. 84(1): 156-61.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

McCormick, D. 1975. Biotin. Nutr. Rev., 33, 97–102.

Meshkin, B., Blum, K. 2007. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics. Drug Metab Lett., 1(1): 55-60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19356019 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40, 212-218.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.

Pietrzik, K., et al. 2010. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet., 49(8): 535-48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20608755 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Scambi, C., et al. 2009. Preliminary evidence for cell membrane amelioration in children with cystic fibrosis by 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation: a single arm trial. PLoS One. 4(3):e4782. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277125 (accessed 5/15/2012).

Sharp, L., Little, J. 2004. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol., 159(5): 423-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14977639 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.


Basha, M., et al. 2009. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 297(5): R1486-R1493. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777769/ (accessed 8/29/2013).

Buchman, A.L., et al. 2001. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral butrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 25(5): 260-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11531217?dopt=Abstract (accessed 8/29/2013).

Deuster, P.A., et al. 2002. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil Med. 167 (12): 1020-5. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502178?dopt=Abstract (accessed 8/29/2013).

Guerrerio, A.L., et al. 2011. Oral choline supplementation in children with intestinal failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 53(1): 115-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694550 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Giuliano, F., et al. 2002. Neurophysiology and Pharmacology of Female Genital Sexual Response. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 28:1 (101-121). URL (abstract): http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00926230252851230#.Uh9mV13D8aU (accessed 8/29/2013).

Innis, S.M., et al. 2007. Choline-related supplements improve abnormal plasma methinine-homocysteine metabolites and glutathione status in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 85(3): 702-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344490 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Jiang, X., et al. 2013. A higher maternal choline intake among third-trimester pregnant women lowers placental and circulating concentrations of the antiangiogenic factor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). FASEB J. 27(3): 1245-53. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23195033 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Penry, J.T. & Manore, M.M. 2008. Choline: an important micronutrient for maximal endurance-exercise performance? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 18(2): 191-203. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18458362?dopt=Abstract (accessed 8/29/2013).

Ross, R.G., et al. 2013. Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology relate to later schizophrenia risk. Am H Psychiatry. 170(3): 290-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23318559 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Sidhu, N., et al. Oral choline supplementation for postoperative pain. Br. J Anaesth. 111(2):249-55. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23568851 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Wallace, J.M., et al. 2012. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomized, controlled trail in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 108(7): 1264-71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22172554 (accessed 10.29.2013).

West, A.A., et al. 2013. Choline intake influences phosphatidylcholine DHA enrichment in nonpregnat women but not in pregnant women in the third trimester. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(4): 718-27. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23446897 (accessed 10.29.2013).

Zeisel, S.H. 2004. Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Coll Nutr. (6 Supple): 621S-626S. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15640516?dopt=Abstract (accessed 8/29/2013).

Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

Alarcon-Aguilsar, F.J., et al. 2002. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. Phytother Res. 16(4): 383-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12112298 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Anderson, T. & Fogh, J. 2001. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients. J Hum Nutr Diet. 14(3): 243-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11424516 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Bezzara, A.G., et al. 2013. Effects of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa and Heteropterys tomentosa extracts on hippocampal apoptosis of aged rats. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 11(2): 163-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23843055/ (accessed 11.22.2013).

Estrada-Reyes, R., et al. 2009. Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males. J Ethnopharmacol. 123 (3): 423-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19501274 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Harrold, J.A., et al. 2013. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice. Appetite. 62: 84-90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23207186 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2006. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. J Sex Marital Ther. 32(5): 369-78. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959660 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Ido, T.Y., et al. 2001. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther. 27(5): 541-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11554217 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Sarris, J., et al. 2013. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part1: a review of preclinical studies. CNS Drugs. 27(3): 207-19. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23436255 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Taha, M.M., et al. 2012. Gastroprotective activities of Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult. Revisited: Role of arbutin. J Ethnopharmacol. 141(1): 273-81. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22374081 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Torres-Gonzalez, L., et al. 2011. Protective effect of four Mexican plants against CCI4-induced damage on the Huh7 human hepatoma cell line. Ann Hepatol. 20(1): 73-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301013 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Yakoot, M., et al. 2011. Effectiveness of a herbal formula in women with menopausal syndrome. Forsch Komplementmed. 18(5): 264-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105039 (accessed 11.22.2013).


Eleutherococcus senticosus Monograph. Alternative Medicine Review. 11(2): 151-55. Thorne Research, Inc. URL: http://www.modernhealthshop.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Eleutherococcus-senticosus.pdf?TB_iframe (accessed 10.30.2013).

Chen, T.S., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am J Chin Med. 36(6): 1209-17. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 10.30.2013).

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2004. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. (9): 69-73. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15207399 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Deyama, T., et al. 2001. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseg. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 22(12): 1057-70. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/22/1057.pdf (accessed 11.07.2013).

Eschbach, L.F., et al. 2000. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 10(4): 444-51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099371 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Gaffney, B.T., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med Hypotheses. 56(5): 567-72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11388770 (accessed 10.30.2013).

Gaffney, B.T., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleuthero senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 70(4): 431-42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798012 (accessed 10.31.2013).

Goulet, E.D. & Dionne, I.J. 2005. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 15(1): 75-83. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15902991 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Huang, L., et al. 2011. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Pharmazie. 66(2): 83-97. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21434569 (accessed 11.07.2013).

Huang, L.Z., et al. 2011. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus. J Ethnopharmacol. 133(1): 213-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920564 (accessed 11.07.2013).

Hwang, Y.C., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452124 (accessed 10.31.2013).

Kimura, Y. & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 95(2-3): 447-53. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507373 (accessed 10/31/2013).

Kuo, J., et al. 2010. The effect of eight weeks of supplementation with Eleuthorococcus senticosus on endurance capacity and metabolism in human. Chin J Physiol. 53(2): 105-11. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21793317 (accessed 10.30.2013).

Panossian, A. & Wikman, G. 2009. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 4(3): 198-219. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19500070 (accessed 11.07.2013).

Schaffler, K., et al. 2013. No benefit adding eleutherococcus senticosus to stress management training in stress-related fatigue/weakness, impaired work or concentration, a randomized controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 46(5): 181-90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23740477 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):248-58. PubMed PMID: 15190050. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15190050/ (accessed 11.21.2013)

Smalinskiene, A., et al.

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2004. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):69-73. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15207399 (accessed 11.14.2013).

Kwan, C.Y., et al. 2004. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004 May;369(5):473-80. Epub 2004 Apr 17. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15095033 (accessed 11.14.2013)

Fadzel Wong Chee Ping, et al. 2011. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment Indian J Med Res. 2011 January; 133(1): 96–102 URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100154/ (accessed 11.14.2013)


Alizadeh, M., et al. 2012. Effect of L-arginine and selenium added to a hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes on cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with central obesity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab. 60(2): 157-68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22517293 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Allahdadi, K.J. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008577/ (accessed 8/30/2013).

Aung, H.H., et al. 2004. Alternative Therapies for Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction. Am J Chin Med. 32(2): 161-173. URL: http://li123-4.members.linode.com/files/Alternative%20Therapies%20for%20Male%20and%20Female%20Sexual%20Dysfunction.pdf (accessed 9/03/2013).

Beharry, R.K., et al. 2008. Restoration of female genital vasocongestive arousal responses in young and aged rats. J Sex Med. 5(4): 804-12. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18221278 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Berman, J.R., et al. 1998. Effect of estrogen withdrawal on nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptosis in the rat vagina. Urology. 51(4): 650-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9586624 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Berman, J.R., et al. 2000. Anatomy and physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction: classification, evaluation and treatment options. Eur Urol.38(1): 20-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10859437 (accessed 9/03/2013)/

Berman, J.R. 2005. Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. Int J Impo Res. 17: S44-S51. URL: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html (accessed 9/03/2013).

Bogdanski, P., et al. 2012. Effect of 3-month L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and tumor necrosis factor activity in patients with visceral obesity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16(6): 816-23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22913215 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Burnett, A.L. et al. 1997. Immunohistochemical description of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human clitoris. J Urol. 158(1): 75-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9186326 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Caruso, S., et al. 2001. Premenopausal women affected by sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil: a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. BJOG. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11426898 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Chilosi, A., et al. 2012. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 7:43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22713831 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Gianfrilli, D., et al. 2012. Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a neutraceutical approach to erectile dysfunction. Andrologia. 44 Suppl 1:600-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966881 (accessed 8/30/2013).

Goldstein, I. & Berman, J.R. 1998. Vasculogenic female arousal dysfunction: vaginal engorgement and clitoral erective insufficiency syndromes. Int J Impot Res. 10 Suppl 2: S84-90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647967 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2001. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for the enhancement of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther. 27(5): 541-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11554217 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ito, T.Y., et al. 2006. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. J Sex Marital Ther. 32(5): 369-78. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959660 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Jabecka, A., et al. 2012. Oral L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild arterial hypertension and its effect on plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-citruline, L-arginine and antioxidant status. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 16(12): 1665-74. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23161038 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Kim, N.N., et al. 2004. Role of arginase in the male and female sexual arousal response. J Nutr. 134 (10 Supple): 2873S-2879S. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/134/10/2873S.full (accessed 8/30/2013).

Laan, E., et al. 1995. Assessment of female sexual arousal: response specificity and construct validity. Psychophysiology. 32(5): 476-85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7568642 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Laan, E. & Everaerd, W. 1998. Physiological measure of vaginal vasocongestion. Int J Import Res. 10 Supple 2: S107-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647971 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Leventhal, J.L. 1999. Management of Libido Problems in Menopause. Presented at the Conjoint Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Canadian Fertility and Andrology 32nd Annual Postgraduate Program, Toronto, Canada, 9/25-26, 1999. URL: http://xnet.kp.org/permanentejournal/sum00pj/libido.html (accessed 9/03/2013).

McKay, D. 2004. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev. 9(1): 4-16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15005641 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Meston, C.M. & Frohlich, P.F. 2000. The neurobiology of sexual function. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 57(11): 1012-30. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11074867 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Meston, C.M. & Worcel, M. 2002. The effects of yohimbe plus L-arginine glutamate on sexual arousal and in postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder. Arch Sex Behav. 31(4): 323-32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12187545 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Monti, L.D., et al. 2012. Effect of long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 14(10):893-900. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22553931 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ogungbemi, S.I., et al. 2013. L-arginine increase nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. Niger J Physiol Sci. 28(1): 45-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955406 (accessed 8/30/2013).

Park, K., et al. 1997. Vasculogenic female sexual dysfunction: the hemodynamic basis for vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency. Int J Impot Res. 9(1): 27-37. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9138056 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Park, K., et al. 1998. Sildenafil inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 in human clitoral corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 249(3):612-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731184 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Phillips, N. 2000. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Evaluation and Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 62(1): 127-136. URL: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0701/p127.html (accessed 9/03/2013).

Polycarpou, E., et al. 2013. Oral L-arginine supplementation and faecal calprotectin levels in very low birth weight neonates. J Perinatol. 33(2): 141-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22555780 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Ralph, A.P., et al. 2013. L-arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS One. 8(8):e70032. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3743888/ (accessed 8/30/2013).

Sarrel, P.M. 1998. Ovarian hormones and vaginal blood flow: using laser Doppler celocimetry to measure effects in a clinical trial of post-menopausal weomn. Int J Impot Res. 10 Suppl 2: S91-3. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647968 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Sydow, K., et al. 2003. ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e) inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins. Cardiovasc Res. 57(1): 244-52. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12504835 (accessed 9/03/2013).

Wu, Z., et al. 2012. Regulation of brown adipose tissue development and white fat reduction by L-arginine. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 15(6): 529-38. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075933 (accessed 9/03/2013).


Balick, M.J. & Lee, R. 2002. Maca: from traditional food crop to energy and libido stimulant. Altern Ther Health Med. 8(2): 96-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11890390 (accessed 9/09/2013).

Bogani, P., et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 104(3): 415-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16239088 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Brooks, N.A., et al. 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. 15(6): 1157-62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784609 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Cicero, A.F., et al. 2001. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behavior in male rats independently from its actions on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 75(2-3): 225-9. URL (abstract olyhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297856 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Dording, C.M., et al. 2008. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther. 14(3): 182-90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801111 (accessed 9/09/2013).

Gonzales, G.F., et al. 2003. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. 176(1): 163-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12525260 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Gonzales, G.F. 2012. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Andes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012: 193496. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184420/ (accessed 9/11/2013).

Gonzales, G.F., et al. 2013. Role of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Consumption on Serum Interleukin-6 Levels and Health Status in Populations Living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of Altitude. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013 Aug 11 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934543 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Gonzales, G.F., et al. 2002. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. 34(6): 367-72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472620/ (accessed 9/11/2013).

Gonzales, G.F., et al. 2001. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl. 3(4): 301-3. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11753476 (acecssed 9/11/2013).

Mazaro-Costa, R., et al. 2010. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women? J Sex Med. 7(11): 3695-714. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20722793 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Mehta, K., et al. 2007. Comparison of glucosamine sulfate and a polyherbal supplement for the relief of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN235438351]. BMC Complement Altnern Med. 7:34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17974032 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Meissner, H.O., et al. 2006. Hormone-Balance Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmocodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Overiectomized Rats. Int J Biomed Sci. 2(3): 260-272. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614604/ (accessed 9/11/2013).

Rowland, D.L. & Tai, W. 2003. A Review of Plant-Derived and Herbal Approaches to the Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions. J Sex & Mar Ther. 29(3): 185-205. URL: http://redsaf.org/pipermail/red_redsaf.org/attachments/20071224/55893126/attachment-0018.pdf (accessed 9/11/2013).

Shin, B.C., et al. 2010. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review. BMC Comp & Alt Med. 10:44. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/44 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Stone, M., et al. 2009. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethonopharmacol. 126(3): 574-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19781622/ (accessed 9/11/2013).

Valentova, K. & Ulrichova, J. 2003. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii – Prospective Andean Crops for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Biomed. Papers. 147(2): 119-130. URL: http://mefanet.upol.cz/BP/2003/2/119.pdf (accessed 9/11/2013).

Zenico, T., et al. 2009. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 41(2): 95-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19260845 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 105(1-2): 274-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16466876 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Zheng, B.L., et al. 2000. Effect of a lipidic extract from lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology. 55(4): 598-602. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736519 (accessed 9/11/2013). Zhao, J., et al. 2005. New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii). J Agric Food Chem. 53(3): 690-3. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15686421 (accessed 9/11/2013).

Meston: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/mestonlab/publications/updatefsf.pdf Ginkgo: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378664 Genital responsiveness to testosterone: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10665617

Muira Puama

Antunes, E., et al. 2001. The relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum by the herbal medicine Catuama and its constituents. Phytother Res. 15(5): 416-21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11507734 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Correia, A.F., et al. 2008. Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 12: 369-80. URL: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/23790255_Amazonian_plant_crude_extract_screening_for_activity_against_multidrug-resistant_bacteria/file/d912f50575859bd17f.pdf (accessed 11.21.2013).

da Silva, A.L., et al. 2002. Anxiogenic properties of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. (Marapuama). Phytotherapy Research. 16 (3): 223-226. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.825/abstract (accessed 11.21.2013).

Figueiro, M., et al. 2011. The Amazonian herbal Marapuama attenuates cognitive impairment and neuroglial degeneration in a mouse Alzheimer model. Phytomedicine. 18(4): 327-33. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739160 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Firgueiro, M., et al. 2010. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama). Phytomedicine. 17(12): 956-62. URL (abstract): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711310000681 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Oliveira C.H., et al. 2005. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 19(1):54-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15798997/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Piato AL, et al. 2010. Anti-stress effects of the "tonic"Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice. Phytomedicine. 2010. 17(3-4):248-53. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19682881 (accessed 11/14/2013).

Piato AL, et al. 2009. Antidepressant profile of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Marapuama) in mice. Phytother Res. 23(4):519-24. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067380 (accessed 11/15/2013).

Piato AL, et al. 2008. Effects of Marapuama in the chronic mild stress model: further indication of antidepressant properties. J Ethnopharmacol.118(2):300-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18513902 (accessed 11/15/2013).

Quintao, N.L.M., et al. 2008. Evaluation of the effects of the herbal product Catuama® in inflammatory and neuropathic models of nociception in rats. Phytomedicine. 15(4): 245-52. URL (abstract): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711307000554 (accessed 11/21/2013).

Shah, G. R., et al. 2012. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 12: 155. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478157/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Siqueira IR, et al. 2007. Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides ("muirapuama") in mice brain. Phytomedicine. 14(11):763-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17433649/ (accessed 11.21.2013)

Siqueira IR, et al. 2003. Ptychopetalum olacoides, a traditional Amazonian "nerve tonic", possesses anticholinesterase activity. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 75(3):645-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12895682/ (accessed 11.21.2013)

Waynburg, J. & Brewer, S. 2000. Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Advances in Therapy. 17 (5): 255-262. URL (abstract): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02853164 (accessed 11.21.2013).


Adaikan PG, et al. 2000 Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Ann Acad Med Singapore.29(1):22-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10748960 (accessed 11/15/2013).

Brown, G.A., et al. 2001. Endocrine and lipid responses to chronic androstenediol-herbal supplementation in 30 to 58 year old men. J Am Coll Nutr. 20(5): 520-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11601567 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Brown, G.A., et al. 2000. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 10(3): 340-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10997957 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Gauthaman, K. & Ganesan, A.P. 2008. The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. Phytomedicine. 15(1-2):44-54. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18068966/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Gauthaman, K. & Adaikan, P.G. 2005. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 96(1-2):127-32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15588660/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Gauthaman K, et al. 2003. Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model. J Altern Complement Med.9(2):257-65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12804079/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Iacono, F., et al. 2012. Sexual asthenia: Tradamixina versus Tadalafil 5 mg daily. BMC Surg. 12 Suppl 1:S23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173697 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Iocono, F., et al. 2012. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved lower urinary tract symptoms. BMC Surg. 12 Suppl 1:S22. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173650 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Kam SC, et al. 2012. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection. J Sex Med. 9(10):2544-51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22906304 (accessed 11/15/2013).

Milasius K, et al. 2009. The influence of the Tribulus terrestris extract on the parameters of the functional preparedness and athletes' organism homeostasis. Fiziol Zh. 55(5):89-96URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20095389/ (accessed 11.21.2013)

Neychev, V.K. & Mitev, V.I. 2005. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not influence the androgen production in young men. J Ethnopharmacol. 101(1-3): 319-23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15994038 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Riaz, A., et al. 2010. Assessment of acute toxicity and reproductive capability of a herbal combination. Pak J Pharm Sci. 23(3): 291-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566442 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Rogerson, S., et al. The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training of elite rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 21(2): 348-53. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17530942 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Saudan, C., et al. 2008. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids. Forensic Sci Int. 178(1): e7-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18282674 (accessed 11.21.2013).


Amieva, H., et al. 2013. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study. PLoS One. 8(1): e52755. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543404/ (accessed 11.21.2013).

Barton, D.L., et al. 2013. The use of Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, N00C9. Support Care Cancer. 21(4): 1185-92. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23150188 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Bhidayasiri, R., et al. 2013. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guidelines Development Subcommittee of the American Academe of Neurology. Neurology. 81(5): 463-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23897874 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Evans, J.R. 2013. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD001775. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440785 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Paick JS & Lee JH. 1996. An experimental study of the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. J Urol.156(5):1876-80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8863636/ (accessed 11.21.2013)

Mathis, C.A., et al. 2013. In vivo assessment of amyloid-B deposition in nondemented very elderly subjects. Ann Neurol. 73(6): 851-61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596051 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Nasab, N.M., et al. 2012. Efficacy of rivastigmine in comparison to ginkgo for treating Alzheimer’s dementia. J Pak Med Assoc. 62(7): 677-80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23866514 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Nicolai, S.P., et al. 2013. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6 CD006888. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23744597 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Rainer, M., et al. 2013. Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 in the treatment of dementia: a pharmacoeconomic analysis of the Austrian setting. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 125(1-2): 8-15. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292640 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Vellas, B., et al. 2012. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (GuideAge): a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 11(10): 851-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22959217 (accessed 11.21.2013).

Zhang, W.F., et al. 2011. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in shcizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. J Clin Psychiatry. 72(5): 615-21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20868638 (accessed 11.21.2013).


Agarwal, S. P., et al. 2007. Shilajit: a review. Phytother Res., 21: 401–405. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.2100/abstract (accessed 11.24.2013.)

Biswas, T.K., et al. 2010. Clinical evaluation of spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit in oligospermia. Adrologia. 42(1): 48-56. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20078516 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Carrasco-Gallardo, C., et al. 2012. Shilajit: A Natural Phytocomplex with Potential Procognitive Activity. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2012: 674142. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296184/ (accessed 11.22.2013).

Carrasco-Gallardo, C., et al. 2012. Can nutraceuticals prevent Alzheimer’s disease? Potential therapeutic role of a formulation containing shilajit and complex B vitamins. Arch Med Res. 43 (8): 699-704. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23131823 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Ghosal, S., et al. 1989. Mast cell protecting effects of shilajit and its constituents. Phytother Res. 3: 249–252. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.2650030606/abstract (accessed 11.24.2013).

Goel, R.K., et al. 1990. Antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory studies with shilajit. J Ehtnopharmacol. 29 (1): 95-103. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2345464 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Mohamed-I, K., et al. 2012. Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Ulcerogenic Effects of Shilajit on Gastric Ulcer in Rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 8 (1): 26-39, 2012. URL (abstract) http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2012.26.39 (accessed 11.24.2013)

Park, J.S., et al. 2006. The spermatogenic and ovogenic effects of chronically administered Shilajit to rats J Ethnopharmacol. 107(3): 349-53. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16698205 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Sharma, P., et al. 2003. Shilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjects. Anc Sci Life. 23(2):114-9. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22557121 (accessed 11.24.2013)

Stohs, S.J. 2013. Safety and Efficacy of Shilajit (Mumie, Moomiyo). Phytother Res. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5018. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733436 (accessed 11.22.2013).

Velmurugan, C., et al. 2012. Evaluation of safety profile of black shilajit after 91 days of repeated administration in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2(3): 201-4. doi: 10.1016/S221-1691(12)60043-4 URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=evaluation+and+safety+profile+of+black+shilajit (accessed 11.22.2013).

Wilson, E., et al. 2011. Review on shilajit used in traditional Indian medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 136(1): 1-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21530631 (accessed 11.22.2013).