Super C Plus

Our Super C Plus is formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Super C Plus.

Vitamin C (Calcium ascorbate)

Anderson, P. A., et al. 2012. Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformaties in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias Taurus, in public aquaria. J Zoo Wildl Med. 43(4): 750-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Ceriello, A., et al. 2012. Evidence that hyperglycemia after recovery from hypoglycemia worsens endothelial function and increases oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy control subjects and subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 61 (11): 2993-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013)

Cha, J., et al. 2013. Ascorbate supplementation inhibits growth and metastasis of B16FO melanoma and 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitamin C-deficient mice. Int J Oncol. 42(1): 55-64. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Dennehy, C., & Tsourounis, C. 2010. A review of select vitamins and minerals used by postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 66 (4), 370–380. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Farombi, E., & Onyema, O. 2006. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: Modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 25 (5), 251–259. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Frei, B., et al. 2012. Authors’ perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 52(9): 815-29. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Gabbay, K., et al. 2010. Ascorbate synthesis pathway: Dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis. J. Biol. Chem., 285 (25), 19510–19520. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Gunes, T., et al. a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in early postoperative period of cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 13(11): 691-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Harikrishnan, R., et al. 2013. Protective effect of ascorbic acid against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male guinea pigs. Br J Nutr. 21: 1-10 [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Hie, M., & Tsukamoto, I. 2010. Vitamin C-deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis with an increase in RANK expression. J. Nutr. Biochem. 22(2): 164-71. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Jelodar, G., et al. 2013. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. Electromagn Biol Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, C. H., et al. 2013. Involvement of Mitochondrial DNA Damage Elicited by Oxidative Stress in the Arsenical Skin Cancers. J Invest Dermatol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, T. H., et al. 2013. The use of lyophilized plasma in severe multi-injury pig model. Transfusion. 53 Suppl 1:72S-9S. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88 (4), 1523–1527. URL: (accessed 2/6/2013).

Maïmoun, L., et al. 2008. Effect of antioxidants and exercise on bone metabolism. J. Sports Sci., 26 (3), 251–258. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Massé, P., et al. 2008. Cardiovascular disease-risk factors in middle-aged osteopaenic women treated with calcium alone or combined to three nutrients essential to artery and bone collagen. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 21 (2), 117–128. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39 (4), 648–656. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Mikirova, N., et al. 2012. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients. J Transl Med. 10: 189. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Morton, D. 2001. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res., 16 (1), 135–140. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Neto, A., et al. 2010. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 112(1): 71-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

de Oliveira, B. F., et al. 2012. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines in mononuclear cells of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Nutr Neurosci. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/7/2013).

Ruiz–Ramos, M., et al. 2010. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 14 (6), 467–472. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2008. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. J. Nutr., 138 (10), 1931–1938. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Temu, T., et al. 2010. The mechanism of ascorbic acid-induced differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 299 (2), E325–334. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Zanoni, J. N., et al. 2013. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid. An Acad Bras Cienc. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 2/6/2013).

Meriva Curcumin Phytosome
(Curcuma longa, Phosphatidylcholine)

Ak, T. & Gülçin, I. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chemico-biological Interactions. 174(1): 24-37. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.003 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Allegri, P., et al. 2010. Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-term follow-up. Clin Ophthalmol. 4, 1201-1206. URL: (accessed 11/27/2012).

Appendino, G., et al. 2011. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med. 53(3 Suppl 1), 43-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 15 (4), 337-44. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Bradley, JR. 2008. TNF-mediated inflammatory disease. J Pathol. 214 (2): 149-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 52 (2 Suppl 1), 55-62. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/20012)

Chandran, B. & Goel, A. 2012. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res.26(11):1719-25. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4639 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Cuomo, J., et al. 2011. Comparative absorption of a standardized curcuminoid mixture and its lecithin formulation. J Nat Prod. , 74(4):664-9. Epub 2011 Mar 17. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012)

Gupta, N.K. & Dixit, V.K. 2011. Bioavailability enhancement of curcumin by complexation with phosphatidyl choline. J Pharm Sci. 100(5): 1987-95. URL: doi: 10.1002/jps.22393 (accessed 12/20/2012).

Heeba, G. H., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and quercetin in rats: Role of oxidative stress, heme oxygenase-1 and TBF- a. Toxicol Ind Health. Sept 28 (Epub ahead of print). URL: (accessed 12/18/2012).

Huang, G., et al. 2012. Curcumin Protects Against Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Suppression of BAFF Production. J Clin Immunol. November 27 (Epub ahead of print). URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ibrahim, A., et al. 2012. Effect of curcumin and Meriva on the lung metastasis of murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. In Vivo. July-Aug. 24 (4), 401-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Innes, J.F., et al. 2003. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study of P54FP for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis. Vet Rec. 152 (15): 547-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Iqbal, M., et al. 2003. Dietary Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances Antioxidant and Phase II Metabolizing Enzymes in ddY Male Mice: Possible Role in Protection against Chemical Carcinogenesis and Toxicity. Pharmacology & Toxicology. 92: 33-38. URL: (accessed 1/16/2012)

Jaco A., et al. 2007. Mechanism of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Curcumin: PPAR-gamma Activation. PPAR Res. 2007: 89369. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Khanna, S., et al. 2009. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of a novel demethylated curcuminoid. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11(3): 449-468. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/ars.2008.2230 (accesed 12/18/2012).

Kuptniratsaikul V., et al. 2009. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 15(8):891-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Lavrovsky, Y., et al. 2000. Role of redox-regulated transcription factors in inflammation, aging and age-related diseases. Exp Gerontol. Aug, 35 (5):521-32. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Liu, A., et al. 2006. Validated LC/MS/MS assay for curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin in rat plasma and application to pharmacokinetic study of phospholipid complex of curcumin. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 40(3): 720-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/20/2012).

Maiti, K., et al. 2007. Curcumin-phospholipid complex: Preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int J Pharm. 330(1-2): 155-63. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/20/2012).

Marczylo, T.H., et al. 2007. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylecholine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 60 (2), 171-7. Epub 2006 Oct 19. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/27/2012)

Mazzolani, F. 2012. Pilot study of oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid formulation for treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. Clin Ophthalmol. 6, 801-6. Epub May 28, 2012. URL (abstract): (accessed 11/26/2012).

Mobasheri, A., et al. 2012. Scientific Evidence and Rationale for the Development of Curcumin and Resveratrol as Nutrceuticals for Joint Health. Int J Mol Sci. 13(4): 4202-4232. URL: (accessed 12/20/2012).

Obrenovich, M.E., et al. 2010. The role of polyphenolic antioxidants in health, disease, and aging. Rejuvenation Research. 13(6): 631-643. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/rej.2010.1043 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Phan, T.-T., et al. 2001. Protective Effects of Curcumin against Oxidative Damage on Skin Cells In Vitro: Its Implications for Would Healing. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 51 (5): 927-931. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Popa, C., et al. 2007. The role of TNF-a in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk. The Journal or Lipid Research. 48 (751-762). URL: doi: 10.1194/jlr.R600021-JLR200 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Priyadarsini, K. I., et al. 2003. Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 35(5): 475-484. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ruby, A.J., et al. 1995. Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids. Cancer Letters. 94(1): 79-83. URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Serpe, R., et al. 2011. Cucuma longa extract is effective in reducing blood levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in patients with cancer-related cachexia and oxidative stress. Abstracts of the 6th Cachexia Conference, Milan, Italy, December 8-10, 2011. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2(4), 209-61. URL: (accessed 11/27/2012)

Shen, C.L., et al. 2012. Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. J Nutr Biochem. 23(11): 1367 – 77. URL (abstract): i: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.04.001 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Shehzad, A., et al. 2012. Curcumin in inflammatory disease. BioFactors. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/biof.1066. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013)

Shishodia S, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. 2005. Curcumin: getting back to the roots. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov. 1056 (206-17). URL (abstract): (accessed 12/18/2012).

Wolkmer, P., et al. 2012. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Int. Nov 29 (Epub ahead of print). URL: doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2012.11.004. (accessed 12/18/2012).


Aydin, S. et al. 2012. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of lycopene in obstructive jaundice. J Surg Res. 2012 Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Fujita, K., et al. 2013. Lycopene inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal apoptosis in gerbil hippocampal tissue. Neurochem res. 2013 Jan 8 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Garrido, M., et al. 2012. A lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil enhances antioxidant status in humans. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Oct 26 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Grainger, E. M., et al. 2008. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer. 60(2): 145-54. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Hsiao, G., et al. 2005. Inhibitory effects of lycopene on in vitro platelet activation and in vivo prevention of thrombus formation. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 146 (4), 216–226. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2012).

Kim, G., et al. 2004. Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunology, 113 (2), 203–211. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/2/2013).

Kremore, T.V., et al. 2012. Evaluation of the effect of newer antioxidant lycopene in the treatement of oral submucous fibrosis. Indian J Dent Res. 23 (4): 524-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2013).

Kim, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene II — effect on osteoblasts: The carotenoid lycopene stimulates cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of SaOS-2 cells. J. Med. Food, 6 (2), 79–86. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Liang, H., et al. 2012. Lycopene effects on serum mineral elements and bone strength in rats. Molecules. 17 (6): 7093-102. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 15(2): 133-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Supplementation with antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telepeptide of type 1 collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int.22 (4): 1091-101. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Marcotorchino, J., et al. 2012. Lycopene attenuates LPS-induced TNF-a secretion in macrophages and inflammatory markers in adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. Mol Nutr Food Res. 56 (5): 725-32. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Pattison, D., et al. 2005. Dietary beta-cryptoxanthin and inflammatory polyarthritis: Results from a population-based prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82 (2), 451–455. URL: (accessed 2/4/2013).

Quilliot, D., et al. 2011. Carotenoid deficiency in chronic pancreatitis: the effect of an increase in tomato consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr. 65(2): 262-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2007. Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos. Int., 18 (1), 109–115. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene I — effect on osteoclasts: Lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures. J. Med. Food., 6 (2), 69–78. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rauscher, R., et al. 1998. In vitro antimutagenic and in vivo anticlastogenic effects of carotenoids and solvent extracts from fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids. Mutat. Res., 413 (2), 129–142. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Renju, G.l., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen-induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Dec 14 (Epub ahead of print) URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4–y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89 (1), 416–424. URL (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J. Bone Miner. Res., 24 (6), 1086–1094. URL: (accessed 2/4/2013).

Shidfar, F., et al. 2012. Lycopene an adjunctive therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a quasi-control trial. J Complement Integr Med. 9:Article 14. URL (abstract): (accessed).

Shen, C. L., et al. 2012. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection. Nutr Res. 32 (12): 897-910. URL (abstract): (accessed 1/16/2013).

Thies, F., et al. 2012. Effect of a tomato-rich diet on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in moderately overweight, disease-free, middle-aged adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 95(5): 1013-22. URL (abstract): (Accessed 2/5/2013).

Van Breemen, R. B., et al. 2002. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of cis- and all-trans-lycopene in human serum and prostate tissue after dietary supplementation with tomato sauce. J Agric Food Chem. 50(8): 2214-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Wattanapenpaiboon, N., et al. 2003. Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 12 (4), 467–473. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Xaplanteris, P., et al. 2012. Tomato paste supplementation improves endothelial dynamics and reduces plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 32 (5): 390-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Yang, Z., et al. 2008. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 78 (3), 105–111. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/4/2013).

Zhao, X., et al. 2006. Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(1): 163-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 2/5/2013).

Green Tea Extract

Brown, A., et al. 2011. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br. J. Nutr. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 10.21.2011).

Jeukendrup, A., & Randell, R. 2011. Fat burners: Nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes. Rev., 12 (10), 841-851. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Sae-tan, S., et al. 2011. Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea. Pharmacol. Res., 64 (2), 146-154. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.21.2011).

Reinbach, H., et al. 2009. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance. Clin. Nutr., 28 (3), 260-265. URL (abstract): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Bose, M., et al. 2008. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. J. Nutr., 138 (9), 1677-83. URL: (accessed 10.21.2011).

Boschmann M and Thielecke F. 2007. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 26(4):389S-395S. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Belza A, Jessen AB. 2005. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 9(6):733-41. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Kovacs, E., et al. 2004. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br. J. Nutr. 91, 431–437. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Nagao, T., et al. 2005. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:122–9. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Rumpler W., et al. 2001. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr. 2001;131:2848–52. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(6):1040-5. URL: (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 2000. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24(2):252-8. URL (abstract only): (accessed 04.02.2013).

Super Biotic

Our Super Biotic is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Super Biotic.

Fujimori, S., et al. 2007. High dose probiotic and prebiotic cotherapy for remission induction of active Crohn’s disease. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 22 (8), 1199–1204. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Boyle, R., et al. 2006. Probiotic use in clinical practice: What are the risks? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83, 1256–1264. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Falagas, M. et al. 2006. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs, 66 (9), 1253–1261. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2007).

Frankenfeld, C., et al. 2006. Postmenopausal bone mineral density in relation to soy isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes. Maturitas, 53 (3), 315–324. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Parvez, S., et al. 2006. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J. Appl. Microbiol., 100, 1171–1185. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Uehara, S., et al. 2006. A pilot study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of Lactobacillus vaginal suppositories in patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 28, (Suppl. 1) S30–S34. URL (abstract):> (accessed 10.04.2007).

Marshall, B. 2005. The Lasker Awards: Celebrating scientific discovery. JAMA, 294, 1420–1421.

Adolfsson, O., et al. 2004. Yogurt and gut function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 245–256. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Lin, H. 2004. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA, 292 (7), 852–858. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Marelli, G., et al. 2004. Lactobacilli for prevention of urogenital infections: A review. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 8 (2), 87–95. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2007).

Wang, K-Y., et al. 2004. Effects of ingesting Lactobacilus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 737–741. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Halsted, C. 2003. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 77 (Suppl.), 1001S–1007S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Fernández, M., et al. 2003. Probiotic properties of human lactobacilli strains to be used in the gastrointestinal tract. J. Appl. Microbiol., 94, 449–455. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Reid, G., et al. 2003. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 25 (20), 131–134. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.04.2007).

Reid, G., et al. 2003. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 16 (4), 658–672. URL: (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Duggan, C., et al. 2002. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 789–808. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Ishikawa, H., et al. 2002. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22 (1), 56–63. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Holzapfel, W., et al. 2001. Taxonomy and important features of probiotic microorganisms in food and nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 365S–373S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Ishibashi, N., & Yamazaki, S. 2001. Probiotics and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 465S–470S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Isolauri, E., et al. 2001. Probiotics: Effects on immunity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 444S–450S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Isolauri, E. 2001. Probiotics in human disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1142S–1146S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Marteau, P., et al. 2001. Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 430S–436S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Saavedra, J. 2001. Clinical applications of probiotic agents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1147S–1151S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Vanderhoof, J. 2001. Probiotics: Future directions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1152S–1155S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Wollowski, I., et al. 2001. Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 451S–455S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Roberfroid, M. 2000. Prebiotics and probiotics: Are they functional foods? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71 (Suppl.), 1682S–1687S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).

Collins, M., & Gibson, G. 1999. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: Approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69 (Suppl.), 1052S–1057S. URL (full text): (accessed 10.24.2007).


Our Adaptisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Adaptisol.

Astragalus membranaceus

Gao, X., et al. 2011. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice. Inflammation, 34 (1), 10–21. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Li, M., et al. 2011. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2), 412–419. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.02011).

Sevimli–Gür, C., et al. 2011. In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. 2011. [Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 42 (1), 48–51. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hong, F., et al. 2010. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jiang, J., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 13 (4), 396–405. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Li, M., et al. 2010. [Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 30 (1), 7–10. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.04.02011).

Liu, Q., et al. 2010. Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lu, M., et al. 2010. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo studies. J. Trauma, 68 (2), 434–440. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yang, Q., et al. 2010. [Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor neorosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 30 (7), 699–701. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yin, X., et al. 2010. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 397 (2), 232–238. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Zhang, D., & Wang, D. 2010. [Progressive studies on biological activity of total flavonoids of Astragalus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi., 35 (2), 253–256. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi/ (accessed 03.04.02011).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2009. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (1), 28–34. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2009. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism. Phytomedicine, 16 (5), 416–425. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wang, S., et al. 2009. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32 (1), 132–135. URL: (accessed 03.10.2009).

Xu, A., et al. 2009. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice. Endocrinology, 150 (2), 625–633. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ai, P., et al. 2008. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human naturiuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 413–421. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Du, Q., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 86 (7), 449–457. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2008. [Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in diabetic mice.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (2), 166–170. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Jiang, B., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNFalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1434–1439. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Peng, X., et al. 2008. [Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy.] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 46 (1), 55–60. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ryu, M., et al. 2008. Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J. Ethnopharmacol., 115 (2), 184–193. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shen, H., et al. 2008. Astragalus membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (2), 363–369. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Sun, W., et al. 2008. Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette–Guérin and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 103 (2), 143–149. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yuan, W., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1259–1264. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2008. [Effects of Astragalus on renal tubulointerstitial lesions and expression of NF-kappaB and MCP-1 in renal tissues in rat experimental IgA nephropathy.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 10 (2), 173–178. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhu, S., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 29 (1), 57–64. URL: (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hu, J., et al. 2007. [Protective effects of Astragaloside and Quercetin on rat myocardial cells after hypoxia.] Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 23 (3), 175–178. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2007. The immunotherapeutic effects of Astragaluspolysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (3), 470–476. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Luo, G., et al. 2007. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells and inflammatory response after hemorrahagic shock-reperfusion in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 (14), 1436–1440. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ma, W., et al. 2007. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (11), 2079–2083. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25-48. Review. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, H., et al. 2007. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J. Int. Med. Res., 35 (1), 84–90. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. [Effect of astragaloside on myocardial fibrosis in chronic myocarditis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 27 (8), 728–731. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (3), 387–392. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zwickey, H., et al. 2007. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study. Phytother. Res., 21 (11), 1109–1112. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Cai, X., et al. 2006. [Experimental treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in rats with acupoint injection of Astragalus parenteral solution.] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 35 (4), 430–434, 439. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gao, Q., et al. 2006. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. Planta Med., 72 (13), 1227–1231. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yu, J., et al. 2006. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 84 (6), 579–587. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wu, J., et al. 2006. Effect of Astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunity. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 12 (1), 29–31. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, M., et al. 2006. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (2), 229–236. URL: (accessed 03.10.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 2006. [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 8 (5), 376–378. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Astragaloside IV exerts antiviral effects against coxsackievirus B3 by upregulating interferon-gamma. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 47 (2), 190–195. 2006. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.10.2009).

Ko, J., et al. 2005. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (37), 5787–5794. URL: (accessed 03.12.2009).

Lee, H., & Lee, J. 2005. Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Am. J. Chin. Med., 33 (1), 127–138. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2005. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83 (12), 2775–2782. URL: (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ning, K., et al. 2005. [Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (21), 1670–1672. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, S. et al. 2004. [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 24 (2), 121–123. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shao, B., et al. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 320 (4), 1103–1111. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2003. Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (1), 72–77. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mills, S., & Bone, K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 273–279. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Huang, Z., et al. 1995. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 15 (6), 328–330. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Chu, D., et al. 1994. The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and AIDS patients induced by F3 – a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 16 (3), 167–171. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhao, X. 1992. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 12 (11), 679–671, 645. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Qian, Z., et al. 1990. Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (8), 647–651. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on natural killer cell activity and induction of alpha- and gamma-interferon in patients with Coxsackie B viral myocarditis. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103, 304–307.

Yuan, W., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electric activities of cultured rat beating heart cells infected with Coxsackie B-2 virus. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (3), 177–182. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, D. 1989. Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 11 (3), 180–183. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Cordyceps sinensis

Sheng L., et al. 2011. An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 163 (5), 669–678. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.0211).

Chen, S., et al. 2010. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (5), 585–590. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Chen, W., et al. 2010. Effects of the acid polysaccharide fraction isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages in vitro. Cell Immunol., 262 (1), 69–74. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Xiao, G., et al. 2010. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol., 263 (2), 241–250. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cheung, J., et al. 2009. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: Signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124 (1), 61–68. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.25.2009).

Guo, J., et al. 2009. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Ji, D., et al. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phyther. Res., 23 (1), 116–122. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Li, C., et al. 2009. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J. Leukoc. Biol., 85. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (PDF): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shi, B., et al. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 9 (5), 582–586. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Zhou, X., et al. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61 (3), 279–291. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Park, D., et al. 2008. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57BI/6N mice. J. Med. Food, 11 (4), 784–787. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Patterson, R. 2008. Cordyceps: A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry, 69 (7), 1469–1495. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: A study on its histological basis. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1136–1144. URL: (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (7), 617–622. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Yoon, T., et al. 2008. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensis by submerged culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 80 (6), 1087–1093. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2008. Chemical composition and bioactivity changes in stale rice after fermentation with Cordyceps sinensis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106 (2), 188–193. URL: (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhou, X., et al. 2008. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (5), 967–980. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Huang, H., et al. 2007. [Inhibitory effects of Cordyceps extract on growth of colon cancer cells.] Zhong Yao Cai, 30 (3), 310–313. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ko, K., & Leung, H. 2007. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chin. Med., 2 (1), 3. URL: (accessed 08.12.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2007. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 278–285. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kuo, M., et al. 2007. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: Enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75 (4), 769–775. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Nishizawa, K., et al. 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (9), 1758–1762. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Rao, Y., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (1), 78–85. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Xiao, J., & Zhong, J. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Cordyceps species and their antitumor activity studies. Recent Pat. Biotechnol., 1 (2), 123–137. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 44 (2), 439–443. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, Q., & Wu, J. 2007. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 232 (1), 52–57. URL: (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ka Wai Lee, S., et al. 2006. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps — in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 28 (2), 341–360. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, F., et al. 2006. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis alcohol extractive on serum interferon-gamma level and splenic T lymphocyte subset in mice with viral myocarditis.] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22 (3), 321–323.URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, S., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine, 13 (6), 428–433. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin Med., 34 (5), 819–832. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wu, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother. Res., 20 (8), 646–652. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 72 (6), 1152–1156. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Buenz, E., et al. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96 (1–2), 19–29. Review. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Colson, S., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19 (2), 358–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J. Med. Microbiol., 54 (Pt. 8), 795–802. URL (accessed 03.16.2009).

Leu, S., et al. 2005. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (9), 1722–1725. URL: (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ng, T., & Wang, H. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57 (12), 1509–1519. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, B., et al. 2005. Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordyceps sinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43 (4), 543–552. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, W., et al. 2005. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of an exopolysaccharide fraction from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar fungus) on tumour-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 42 (Pt. 1), 9–15. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci., 74 (23), 2897–2908. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Siu, K., et al. 2004. Pharmacological basis of “yin-nourishing” and “yang-invigorating” actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci., 76 (4), 385–395. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Wang, Y., et al. 2004. [An experimental study on anti-aging action of Cordyceps extract.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 29 (8), 773–776. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Koh, J., et al. 2002. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66 (2), 407–411. URL: (accessed 09.25.2009).

Weng, S., et al. 2002. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J. Ethnopharmacol., 83 (1–2), 79–85. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.25.2009).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2001. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci., 68 (9), 1067–1082. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.25.2009).

Sugar, A., & McCaffrey, R. 1998. Antifungal activity of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42(6), 1424–1427. URL (full text): accessed 11.09.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (3), 289–303. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (4), 429–457. URL: (abstract): (accessed 02.26.2009).

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Bai, Y., et al. 2011. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid ß(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J. Nat. Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hwang, Y., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 05.26.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine, 16 (6–7), 617–622. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Smalinskiene, A., et al. 2009. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1171, 314–320. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wiegant, F., et al. 2009. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology, 10 (1), 27–42. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bleakney, T. 2008. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist. Nurs. Pract., 22 (4), 220–224. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Liu, K., et al. 2008. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci. Lett., 434 (2), 195–199. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 74 (2), 109–113. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Soya, H., et al. 2008. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72 (9), 2476–2480. URL: (accessed 03.12.2009).

Tohda, C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (3), 329–339. URL: (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jung, C., et al. 2007. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 183–187. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2007. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res., 39 (12), 894–898. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25–48. Review. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2006. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern. Med. Rev, 11 (2), 151–155. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL: (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (Kan Jang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine, 12 (8), 539–547. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., & Wagner, H. 2005. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single-dose administration. Phytother. Res., 19 (10), 819–838. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hartz, A., et al. 2004. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol. Med., 34 (1), 51–61. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kimura, Y., & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2–3), 447–453. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Arushanian, E., et al. 2003. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans.] Eskp. Klin. Farmakol., 66 (5), 10–13. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rogala, E., et al. 2003. The influence of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 6 (Suppl.), 37–39. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Drozd, J., et al. 2002. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol. Pharm., 59 (5), 395–401. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2002. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang — fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 — on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine, 9 (7), 598–605. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med. Hypotheses, 56 (5), 567–572. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci., 70 (4), 431–442. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schmolz, M., et al. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother. Res., 15 (3), 268–270. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Davydov, M., & Krikorian, A. 2000. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: A closer look. J.Ethnopharmacol., 72 (3), 345–393. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Fujikawa, T., et al. 1996. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold-water-stressed rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 19 (9), 1227–1230. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Nishibe, S., et al. 1990. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38 (6), 1763–1765. URL: (accessed 03.13.2009).

Farnsworth. N., et al. 1985. “Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen.” In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol. 1, eds. H. Wagner et al., 217–284. London: Academic Press.

Medon, P., et al. 1981. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Acta Pharmalogica Sinica, 2 (4), 281–285. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Brekhman, I., & Dardymov, J. 1969. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia, 32 (1), 46–51. URL (no abstract available): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rhodiola rosea

Hung, S., et al. 2011. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 18 (4), 235–244. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.21.2011).

Calcabrini, C., et al. 2010. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defenses of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 302 (3), 191–200. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cifani, C., et al. 2010. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol. Behav., 101 (5), 555–562. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Panossian, A., et al. 2010. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine, 17 (7), 481–493. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.21.2011).

Parisi, A., et al. 2010. Effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: Preliminary results. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 50 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Evdokimov,V. 2009. [Effect of cryopowder Rhodiola rosae L. on cardiorespiratory parameters and physical performance of humans]. Aviakosm. Ekolog. Med., 43 (6), 52–56. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Huang, S., et al. 2009. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat. Chin. J. Physiol., 52 (5), 316–324. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jeong, H., et al. 2009. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 17 (19), 6816–6823. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lee, F., et al. 2009. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance. Am. J. Chin. Med., 37 (3), 557–572. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Mattioli, L., et al. 2009. Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 23 (2), 130–142. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Olsson, E., et al. 2009. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med., 75 (2), (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Pooja, et al. 2009. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea —“a second-generation adaptogen.” Phytother. Res., 23 (8), 1099–1102. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qu, Z., et al. 2009. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: Implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 22 (4), 318–326. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Skarpanska–Stejnborn, A., et al. 2009. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 19 (2), 186–199. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

van Dierman, D., et al. 2009. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (2), 397–401. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Wang, H., et al. 2009. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine, 16 (2-3), 146–155. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bystritsky, A., et al. 2008. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (2), 175-180. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, Q., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (9), 952–959. URL: (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kobayashi, K., et al. 2008. Constituents of Rhodiola rosea showing inhibitory effect on lipase activity in mouse plasma and alimentary canal. Planta Med., 74 (14), 1716-1719. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2008. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 84-91. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qin, Y., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neurons in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 33 (23), 2842–2846. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Shen, W., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in aortic atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (11), 1022–1025. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2007. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord. J. Psychiatry, 61 (5), 343-348. Erratum in: Nord. J. Psychiatry, 2007; 61 (6):503. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Fintelmann, V., & Gruenwald, J. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv. Ther., 24 (4), 929-939. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Mattioli, L., & Perfumi, M. 2007. Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 21 (7), 742-750. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Jafari, M., et al. 2007. Rhodiola: A promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation Res., 10 (4), 587-602. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Perfumi, M., & Mattioli, L. 2007. Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother. Res., 21 (1), 37-43. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Walker, T., et al. 2007. Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men. Metabolism, 56 (8), 1111–1117. URL: (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kim, S., et al. 2006. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice. Biofactors, 26 (3), 209–219. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kwon Y., et al. 2006. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 15 (3), 425-432. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Ming, D., et al. 2005. Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Phytother. Res., 19 (9), 740–743. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.12.2009).

De Bock, K., et al. 2004. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 14 (3), 298–307. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Earnest, C., et al. 2004. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 36 (3), 504-509. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Hudson, T. 2004. Women’s health update: Rhodiola rosea. Townsend Lett. URL: (accessed 03.16.2008).

Kucinskaite, A., et al. 2004. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine.] Medicina (Kaunas), 40 (7), 614–619. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Abidov, M., et al. 2003. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 136 (6), 585–587. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shevtsov, V., et al. 2003. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10 (2-3), 95–105. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

[No author listed.] 2002. Rhodiola rosea. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 7 (5), 421–423. URL (PDF): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Brown, R., et al. 2002. Rhodiola rosea: A phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram, J. Am. Bot. Counc., 56, 40-52. URL: (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2000. Rhodiola rosea in stress-induced fatigue — a double-blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine, 7 (5), 365–371. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Spasov, A., et al. 2000. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-% extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7 (2), 85–89. URL (abstract): (accessed 08.12.2009).

Wing, S., et al. 2003. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ. Med., 14 (1), 9–16. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ha, Z., et al. 2002. [The effect of Rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude.] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 25 (9), 527–530. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Germano, C., et al. 1999. Arctic Root (Rhodiola rosea): The Powerful New Ginseng Alternative. NY: Kensington.

Azizov, A., & Seifulla, R. 1998. The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 61 (3), 61–63. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maimeskulova, L., et al. 1997. The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realization of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 60 (1), 38–39. URL: (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maslova, L., et al. 1994. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 57 (6), 61–63. URL: (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1993. The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 116 (8), 175–176. URL: (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1987. Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 103 (4), 422–424. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).

Stancheva, S., & Mosharrof, A. 1987. Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines. Med. Physiol., 40, 85–87.

Petkov, V., et al. 1986. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulg., 12, 3–16. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.16.2009).