T-Balance Plus Product References

Our T-Balance Plus is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of T-Balance Plus.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera/W. ashwagandha)

C Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/11/65 (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g12001h123tk2876/ (accessed 09.06.2011).

C Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182915 (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16101 (accessed 01.17.2011).

C Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528765 (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116319/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Cooley, K., et al. 2009. Naturopathic care for anxiety: A randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PLoS One, 4 (8), e6628. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0006628 (accessed 05.13.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/nutrinews/Thyroid%20Function%20Support%20%2801-07%29.pdf (accessed 08.10.2010).

B, C Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/7/2298.long (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

B Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/11/4/269.pdf (accessed 09.23.2011).

C Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293277 (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A3, A5 [No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/9/2/211.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.06.2011).

C Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75 (3), 547–555. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895672 (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12551750 (accessed 01.25.2011).

B, C Singh, G., et al. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. (Part II). Phytother. Res., 17 (3), 531–536. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12748992 (accessed 02.24.2011).

C Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536383 (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536389 (accessed 02.23.2011).

B, C Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11406854 (accessed 02.24.2011).

B, C Andallu, B. & Radhika, B. 2000. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 38 (6), 607-609. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11116534 (accessed 05.13.2011).

C Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194174 (accessed 01.25.2011).

B, C Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720789 (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A5, B, C Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/5/4/334.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075127 (accessed 01.26.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Panda, S., & Kar, A. 1999. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 67 (2), 233-239. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10619390 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Aphale, A., et al. 1998. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: A safety assessment. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 42 (2), 299-302. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10225062 (accessed 05.13.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Panda, S., & Kar, A. 1998. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 50 (9), 1065-1068. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9811169 (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1 (10), 16–19.

C Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9017665 (accessed 02.23.2011).

C al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1434685 (accessed 02.23.2011).

C Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1660034 (accessed 02.23.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Köhrle, J., et al. 1988. Flavonoid effects on transport, metabolism and action of thyroid hormones. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 280, 323-340. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3140249 (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20 (1), 29–35. URL (abstract): http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13880208209083282 (accesesd 10.05.2011).

Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop)

C Abascal, K., & Yarnell, E. 2011. Bacopa for the brain: A smart addition to Western medicine. Altern. Complement. Ther., 17 (1), 21-25. URL (abstract): http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/mary-ann-liebert/bacopa-for-the-brain-a-smart-addition-to-western-medicine-xPGtuo07v0 (accessed 09.29.2011).

C Bhaskar, M., & Jagtap, A. 2011. Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera. Int. J. Ayurveda Res., 2 (1), 2-7. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3157104/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Oliff, H. 2011. RE: Review of clinical potential of Bacopa in treatment of central nervous system-related ailments. HerbClip. URL (PDF): http://cms.herbalgram.org/herbclip/430/pdfs/041157.pdf (accessed 09. 29.2011).

B, C Morgan, A., & Stevens, J. 2010. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (7), 753–759. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590480 (accessed 09.28.2011).

C Sumathi, T., & Niranjali Devaraj, S. 2009. Effect of Bacopa monnierai on liver and kidney toxicity in chronic use of opioids. Phytomedicine, 16 (10), 897-903. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403290 (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Calabrese, C., et al. 2008. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement Med., 14 (6), 707-713. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3153866/?tool=pubmed (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/nutrinews/Thyroid%20Function%20Support%20%2801-07%29.pdf (accessed 08.10.2010).

C Stough, C., et al. 2008. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90-day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Phytother Res., 22 (12), 1629–1634. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683852 (accessed 09.28.2011).

B, C Pravina, K., et al. 2007. Safety evaluation of BacoMind in healthy volunteers: A phase I study. Phytomedicine, 14 (5), 301–308. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711307000487 (accessed 10.05.2011).

B, C Raghav, S., et al. 2006. Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment. Indian J. Psychiatry, 48 (4), 238-242. URL: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5545;year=2006;volume=48;issue=4;spage=238;epage=242;aulast=Raghav (accessed 05.16.2011).

C Russo, A., & Borrelli, F. 2005. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: An overview. Phytomedicine, 12 (4), 305–317. URL: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Bacopa+monniera%2c+a+reputed+nootropic+plant%3a+an+overview-a0133802203 (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Kar, A., et al. 2002. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 281–285. URL (abstract): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410200048X (accessed 10.05.2011).

C Sairam, K., et al. 2002. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats. Phytomedicine, 9 (3), 207–211. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12046860 (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Asthana, O., et al. 1996. Safety and tolerability of bacosides A and B in healthy human volunteers. Indian J. Pharmacol., 28 (1), 37. URL (no abstract available): http://indianmedicine.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/root/A/2065/ (accessed 10.05.2011).

Coleus forskohlii

A1–A3, A5, C Andrade, B., et al. 2011. A novel role for AMP-kinase in the regulation of the Na+/I--symporter and iodide uptake in the rat thyroid gland. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol,, 300 (6), C1291-1297. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389275 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Doorn, J., et al. 2011. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells. Tissue Eng. Part A. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21942968 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B Montalbetti, N., et al. 2011. Homeostasis of extracellular ATP in human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. [Epub ahead of print.] URL: http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2011/09/15/jbc.M111.221713.long (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Lele, R. 2010. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs. J. Ayurveda Integr. Med., 1 (4), 257–265. URL: http://www.jaim.in/article.asp?issn=0975-9476;year=2010;volume=1;issue=4;spage=257;epage=265;aulast=Lele (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Lichtl–Kaiser, K., et al. 2009. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling modulates pregnane x receptor activity in a species-specific manner. J. Biol. Chem., 284 (11), 6639–6649. URL (PDF): http://www.jbc.org/content/284/11/6639.full.pdf+html (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Ding, X, & Staudinger, J. 2005. Induction of drug metabolism by forskolin: The role of the pregnane X receptor and the protein kinase A signal transduction pathway. JPET, 312 (2), 849–856. URL: http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/312/2/849.long (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Sun, S-C., et al. 2009. Thyrostimulin, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), acts as a paracrine regulator to activate the TSH receptor in mammalian ovary. J. Biol. Chem., 285 (6), 3758 –3765. URL: http://www.jbc.org/content/285/6/3758.long (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/nutrinews/Thyroid%20Function%20Support%20%2801-07%29.pdf (accessed 08.10.2010).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Monograph. 2006. Coleus forskohlii. Altern. Med. Rev. 11 (1), 47-51. URL: http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/11/1/47.pdf (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Henderson, S., et al. 2005. Effects of Coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 2 (2), 54-64. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2129145/ (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A5 Venkateswaran, A., et al. 2004. Forskolin, 8-Br-3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and catalytic protein kinase A expression in the nucleus increase radioiodide uptake and sodium/iodide symporter protein levels in RET/PTC1-expressing cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89 (12), 6168-6172. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/89/12/6168.long (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Sidhu, J., & Omiecinski, C. 1996. Forskolin-mediated induction of CYP3A1 mRNA expression in primary rat hepatocytes is independent of elevated intracellular cyclic AMP. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 276 (1), 238–245. URL: http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/276/1/238.abstract?ijkey=219ddd03765d3387d7e844b1c078e2a82694c2d5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha (accessed 10.05.2011).

A1–A3. A5, C Roger, P., et al. 1987. Regulation of dog thyroid epithelial cell cycle by forskolin, and adenylate cyclase activator. Exp. Cell. Res., 172 (2), 282-292. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2820768 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Ammon, H., & Muller, A. 1985. Forskolin: From an ayurvedic remedy to a modern agent. Planta Med. 51, 473-477. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17345261 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Haye, B., et al. 1985. Chronic and acute effects of forskolin on isolated thyroid cell metabolism. Mol. Cell Endocrinol., 43 (1), 41-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2998908 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Kasai, K., et al. 1985. Forskolin stimulation of adenylate cyclase in human thyroid membranes. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.), 108 (2), 200-205. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4038568 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Mokhtari, A., et al. 1985. Forskolin modulates cyclic AMP generation in the rat myometrium. Interactions with isoproterenol and prostaglandins E2 and I2. J. Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor. Res., 10 (3), 213-227. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2991348 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Daly, J., et al. 1982. Activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems in brain membranes and slices by the diterpene forskolin: augmentation of receptor-mediated responses. J. Neurochem., 38 (2), 532-544. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6125572 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A5, C Fradkin J., et al. 1982. Forskolin stimulation of thyroid adenylate cyclase and cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Endocrinology, 111 (3), 849-856. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6286284 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Seamon, K., & Daly, J. 1981. Forskolin: A unique diterpene activator of cyclic AMP-generating systems. J. Cyclic Nucleotide Res., 7 (4), 201-224. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6278005 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A4, C Seamon, K., et al. 1981. Forskolin: A unique diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase in membranes and in intact cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 3363-3367. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC319568/ (accessed 10.06.2011).

Humulus lupulus (hops)

B, C Dorn, C., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone derived from hops, inhibits proliferation, migration and interleukin-8 expression of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Int. J. Oncol., 36 (2), 435-441. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043079 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B Dorn, C., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol feeding does not impair organ function and homoeostasis in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48 (7), 1890-1897. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20427021 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Radovic, B., et al. 2010. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hops, modulates hepatic expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone distribution and metabolism. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 54 (Suppl. 2), S225-S235. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20461738 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Ho, Y-C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1465-1468. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814205 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Zanoli, P., & Zavatti, M. 2008. Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 383–396. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18308492 (accessed 10.06.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/nutrinews/Thyroid%20Function%20Support%20%2801-07%29.pdf (accessed 08.10.2010).

B Nagasako-Akazome, Y., et al. 2007. Safety evaluation of polyphenols extracted from hop bracts. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (8), 1383-1392. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17376578 (accessed 04.16.2011).

C Delmulle, L., et al. 2006. Anti-proliferative properties of prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in human prostate cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine, 13 (9-10), 732-734. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678392 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Vanhoecke, B., et al. 2005. Antiinvasive effect of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. Int. J. Cancer, 117 (6), 889-895. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15986430 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Morin, C., et al. 2005. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep, 28 (11), 1465-1471. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16335333 (accessed 05.16.2011).

C Nikolic, D., et al. 2005. Metabolism of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), by human liver microsomes. J. Mass Spectrom., 40 (3), 289–299. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15712367 (accessed 10.07.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Radovic, B., et al. 2005. Xanthohumol stimulates iodide uptake in rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 49 (9), 832-836. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16092068 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Vanhoecke, B., et al. 2005. A safety study of oral tangeretin and xanthohumol administration to laboratory mice. In Vivo, 19 (1), 103-107. URL: http://iv.iiarjournals.org/content/19/1/103.long (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Stevens, J., & Page, J. 2004. Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: To your good health! Phytochemistry, 65 (10), 1317–1330. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15231405 (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Milligan, S., et al. 1999. Identification of a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84 (6), 2249-2252. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/84/6/2249.long (accessed 10.06.2011).

C Stevens J., et al. 1999. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 2421-2428. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10794646 (accessed 10.06.2011).

B, C Schmitz, M., & Jäckel, M. 1998. Comparative study for assessing quality of life of patients with exogenous sleep disorders (temporary sleep onset and sleep interruption disorders) treated with a hops-valerian preparation and a benzodiazepine drug. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 148 (13), 291-298. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9757514 (accessed 05.16.2011).


C Dasgupta, P. 2009. Perchlorate: A cause for iodine deficiency? Environ. Chem., 6 (1), 7–9. URL (abstract): http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/188/paper/EN08108.htm (accessed 06.15.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Zimmermann, M. 2009. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: A review. Am. J.Clin. Nutr., 89 (2), 668S–672S. URL (abstract): http://www.ajcn.org/content/89/2/668S.long (accessed 06.12.2009).

A1–A5, B, C Brownstein, D. 2008. Iodine: Why you need it. Why you can’t live without it, 104. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press.

B, C Dasgupta, P., et al. 2008. Iodine nutrition: Iodine content of iodized salt in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1315–1323. URL (PDF): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1021/es0719071 (accessed 05.15.2009).

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A1–A5, B, C Patrick, L. 2008. Iodine deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Alt. Med. Rev., 13 (2), 116–127. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/13/2/116.pdf (accessed 06.12.2009).

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Sage (Salvia officinalis)

B, C Bommer, S., et al. 2011. First time proof of sage’s tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes. Adv. Ther., 28 (6), 490-500. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630133 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Miguel, G., et al. 2011. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat. Prod. Res., 25 (5), 526-541. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391115 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Walch, S., et al. 2011. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Chem. Cent. J., 5, 44. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155476/?tool=pubmed (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Lamien-Meda, A., et al. 2010. Investigation of antioxidant and rosmarinic acid variation in the sage collection of the Genebank in Gatersleben. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58 (6), 3813-3819. URL (abstract): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf903993f (accessed 10.04.2011).

B Oniga, I., et al. 2010. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from Romania. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi., 114 (2), 593-595. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20701010 (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Oboh, G., & Henle, T. 2009. Antioxidant and inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves on pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver in vitro. J. Med. Food., 12 (1), 77–84. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298199 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Schapowal, A., et al. 2009. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: A randomized double-blind trial. Eur. J. Med. Res., 14 (9), 406-412. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19748859 (accessed 09.29.2011).

B Bozin, B., et al. 2007. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (19), 7879-7885. URL (abstract): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf0715323 (accessed 10.04. 2011).

A1–A3, A5, B, C Collins, J. 2007. Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function. NutriNews. URL (PDF): http://www.douglaslabs.com/pdf/nutrinews/Thyroid%20Function%20Support%20%2801-07%29.pdf (accessed 08.10.2010).

B Fecka, I., & Turek, S. 2007. Determination of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in commercial herbal teas from Lamiaceae: Peppermint, melissa, and sage. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55 (26), 10908-10917. URL (abstract): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf072284d (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Raal, A., et al. 2007. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries. Nat. Prod. Res., 21 (5), 406-411. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17487611 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B, C Hubbert, M., et al. 2006. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis — a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis. Eur. J. Med. Res., 11 (1), 20-26. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16504956 (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2003. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 28 (1), 53-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12605619 (accessed 05.16.2011).

B, C Miura, K., et al. 2003. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J. AGric. Food Chem., 50 (7), 1845–1851. URL (abstract): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf011314o (accessed 10.04.2011).

A1–A3, A5, C Danilenko, M., et al. 2001. Carnosic acid and promotion of monocytic differentiation of HL60-G cells initiated by other agents. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 93 (16), 1224–1233. URL: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/16/1224.long (accessed 10.07.2011).

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C Zupkó, I., et al. 2001. Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents. Planta Med., 67 (4), 366-368. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11458459 (accessed 10.04.2011).

C Hohmann, J., et al. 1999. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med., 65 (6), 576-578. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10532875 (accessed 10.04.2011).

B Perry, N., et al. 1999. Essential oils from Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis I.): Variations among individuals, plant parts, seasons, and sites. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47 (5), 2048–2054. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552494 (accessed 10.04.2011).

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B, C Wang, M., et al. 1998. Antioxidative phenolic compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis). J. Agric. Food Chem., 46 (12), 4869–4873. URL (abstract): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf980614b (accessed 10.04.2011).

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C Combs, G., et al. 2009. Effects of selenomethionine supplementation on selenium status and thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89 (6), 1808–1814. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682996/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.30.2011).

B, C Schrauzer, G., & Surai, P. 2009. Selenium in human and animal nutrition: Resolved and unresolved issues. A partly historical treatise in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the biological essentiality of selenium, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Schwarz (1914-1978) on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of his death. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 29 (1), 2-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19514898 (accessed 10.04.2011).

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A1–A3, B Rayman, M., et al. 2008. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87 (2), 370–378. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/content/87/2/370.long (accessed 09.30.2011).

C Reid, M., et al. 2008. The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment. Nutr. Cancer., 60 (2), 155–163. URL (abstract): h http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444146 (accessed 09.30.2011).

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B, C Schroeder, J., et al. 2005. Safety and intestinal tolerance of high-dose enteral antioxidants and glutamine peptides after upper gastrointestinal surgery. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59 (2), 307-310. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15508015 (accessed 05.16.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Derumeaux, H., et al. 2003. Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35- to 60-year-old French adults. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 148 (3), 309-315. URL: http://eje-online.org/content/148/3/309.long (accessed 10.04.02011).

A1–A3, A5, B Zimmermann, M., & Köhrle, J. 2002. The impact of iron and selenium deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: Biochemistry and relevance to public health. Thyroid, 12 (10), 867-878. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487769 (accessed 09.29.2011).

A1–A3, A5, B Berger, M., et al. 2001. Influence of selenium supplements on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: A placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med., 27 (1), 91–100. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280679 (accessed 05.13.2009).

A1–A3, A5 Erdogan, M., et al. 2001. Endemic goiter, thiocyanate overload, and selenium status in school-age children. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 79 (2), 121-130. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11330518 (accessed 09.30.2011).

A1–A3, A5 Giray, B., et al. 2001. Status of selenium and antioxidant enzymes of goitrous children is lower than healthy controls and nongoitrous children with high iodine deficiency. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 82 (1–3), 35-52. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11697777 (accessed 09.29.2011).

B, C Schrauzer, G. 2001. Nutritional selenium supplements: Product types, quality, and safety. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20 (1), 1-4. URL: http://www.jacn.org/content/20/1/1.long (accessed 05.16.2011).

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B Whanger, P., et al. 1996. Metabolism of subtoxic levels of selenium in animals and humans. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci., 26 (2), 99-113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8852418 (accessed 10.04.2011).

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Adaptisol Product References

Our Adaptisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Adaptisol.

Astragalus membranaceus

Gao, X., et al. 2011. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice. Inflammation, 34 (1), 10–21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237952 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Li, M., et al. 2011. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2), 412–419. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pubmed/20951192 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Sevimli–Gür, C., et al. 2011. In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291980 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. 2011. [Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 42 (1), 48–51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355300 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hong, F., et al. 2010. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128203 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jiang, J., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 13 (4), 396–405. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199477 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Li, M., et al. 2010. [Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 30 (1), 7–10. URL (PDF): http://www.j-smu.com/pdf2/201001/2010017.pdf (accessed 03.04.02011).

Liu, Q., et al. 2010. Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620204 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lu, M., et al. 2010. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo studies. J. Trauma, 68 (2), 434–440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154555 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yang, Q., et al. 2010. [Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor neorosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 30 (7), 699–701. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929124 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yin, X., et al. 2010. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 397 (2), 232–238. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546703 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Zhang, D., & Wang, D. 2010. [Progressive studies on biological activity of total flavonoids of Astragalus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi., 35 (2), 253–256. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20394306 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2009. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (1), 28–34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103273 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2009. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism. Phytomedicine, 16 (5), 416–425. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201177 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wang, S., et al. 2009. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32 (1), 132–135. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/32/1/32_132/_article (accessed 03.10.2009).

Xu, A., et al. 2009. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice. Endocrinology, 150 (2), 625–633. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18927219 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ai, P., et al. 2008. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human naturiuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 413–421. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243612 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Du, Q., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 86 (7), 449–457. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641694 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2008. [Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in diabetic mice.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (2), 166–170. URL (PDF): http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/20082261195.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Jiang, B., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNFalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1434–1439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18972582 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Peng, X., et al. 2008. [Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy.] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 46 (1), 55–60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353241 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ryu, M., et al. 2008. Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J. Ethnopharmacol., 115 (2), 184–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996413 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shen, H., et al. 2008. Astragalus membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (2), 363–369. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226482 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Sun, W., et al. 2008. Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette–Guérin and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 103 (2), 143–149. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816297 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yuan, W., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1259–1264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622899 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2008. [Effects of Astragalus on renal tubulointerstitial lesions and expression of NF-kappaB and MCP-1 in renal tissues in rat experimental IgA nephropathy.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 10 (2), 173–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433541 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhu, S., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 29 (1), 57–64. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/29/57.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hu, J., et al. 2007. [Protective effects of Astragaloside and Quercetin on rat myocardial cells after hypoxia.] Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 23 (3), 175–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019054 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2007. The immunotherapeutic effects of Astragaluspolysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (3), 470–476. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/3/470/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Luo, G., et al. 2007. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells and inflammatory response after hemorrahagic shock-reperfusion in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 (14), 1436–1440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966360 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ma, W., et al. 2007. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (11), 2079–2083. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/11/2079/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25-48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, H., et al. 2007. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J. Int. Med. Res., 35 (1), 84–90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408058 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. [Effect of astragaloside on myocardial fibrosis in chronic myocarditis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 27 (8), 728–731. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879539 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (3), 387–392. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900838 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zwickey, H., et al. 2007. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study. Phytother. Res., 21 (11), 1109–1112. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661330 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Cai, X., et al. 2006. [Experimental treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in rats with acupoint injection of Astragalus parenteral solution.] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 35 (4), 430–434, 439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16924709 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gao, Q., et al. 2006. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. Planta Med., 72 (13), 1227–1231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16902872 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yu, J., et al. 2006. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 84 (6), 579–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16900242 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wu, J., et al. 2006. Effect of Astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunity. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 12 (1), 29–31. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571280 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, M., et al. 2006. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (2), 229–236. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/27/229.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 2006. [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 8 (5), 376–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052394 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Astragaloside IV exerts antiviral effects against coxsackievirus B3 by upregulating interferon-gamma. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 47 (2), 190–195. 2006. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495755 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Ko, J., et al. 2005. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (37), 5787–5794. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5787.asp (accessed 03.12.2009).

Lee, H., & Lee, J. 2005. Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Am. J. Chin. Med., 33 (1), 127–138. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15844840 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2005. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83 (12), 2775–2782. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/83/12/2775 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ning, K., et al. 2005. [Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (21), 1670–1672. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16400945 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, S. et al. 2004. [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 24 (2), 121–123. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015443 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shao, B., et al. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 320 (4), 1103–1111. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15249203 (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2003. Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (1), 72–77. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/1/72.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mills, S., & Bone, K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 273–279. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Huang, Z., et al. 1995. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 15 (6), 328–330. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7549379 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Chu, D., et al. 1994. The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and AIDS patients induced by F3 – a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 16 (3), 167–171. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7956691 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhao, X. 1992. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 12 (11), 679–671, 645. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1301849 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Qian, Z., et al. 1990. Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (8), 647–651. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173655 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on natural killer cell activity and induction of alpha- and gamma-interferon in patients with Coxsackie B viral myocarditis. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103, 304–307.

Yuan, W., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electric activities of cultured rat beating heart cells infected with Coxsackie B-2 virus. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (3), 177–182. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2164463 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, D. 1989. Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 11 (3), 180–183. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2612327 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Cordyceps sinensis

Sheng L., et al. 2011. An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 163 (5), 669–678. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811959 (accessed 03.04.0211).

Chen, S., et al. 2010. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (5), 585–590. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804368 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Chen, W., et al. 2010. Effects of the acid polysaccharide fraction isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages in vitro. Cell Immunol., 262 (1), 69–74. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138259 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Xiao, G., et al. 2010. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol., 263 (2), 241–250. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451901 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cheung, J., et al. 2009. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: Signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124 (1), 61–68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446414 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Guo, J., et al. 2009. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948751 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Ji, D., et al. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phyther. Res., 23 (1), 116–122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803231 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Li, C., et al. 2009. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J. Leukoc. Biol., 85. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (PDF): http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/rapidpdf/jlb.0908573v1 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shi, B., et al. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 9 (5), 582–586. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557879 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Zhou, X., et al. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61 (3), 279–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222900 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Park, D., et al. 2008. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57BI/6N mice. J. Med. Food, 11 (4), 784–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053874 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Patterson, R. 2008. Cordyceps: A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry, 69 (7), 1469–1495. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343466 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: A study on its histological basis. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1136–1144. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=167219772008111136 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822912 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Yoon, T., et al. 2008. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensis by submerged culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 80 (6), 1087–1093. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690428 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2008. Chemical composition and bioactivity changes in stale rice after fermentation with Cordyceps sinensis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106 (2), 188–193. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jbb/106/2/106_188/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhou, X., et al. 2008. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (5), 967–980. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051361 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Huang, H., et al. 2007. [Inhibitory effects of Cordyceps extract on growth of colon cancer cells.] Zhong Yao Cai, 30 (3), 310–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634040 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ko, K., & Leung, H. 2007. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chin. Med., 2 (1), 3. URL: http://www.cmjournal.org/content/2/1/3 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2007. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 278–285. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17029726 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kuo, M., et al. 2007. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: Enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75 (4), 769–775. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310399 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Nishizawa, K., et al. 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (9), 1758–1762. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/9/1758/_pdf (accessed 03.16.2009).

Rao, Y., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (1), 78–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822865 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Xiao, J., & Zhong, J. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Cordyceps species and their antitumor activity studies. Recent Pat. Biotechnol., 1 (2), 123–137. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19075836 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 44 (2), 439–443. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, Q., & Wu, J. 2007. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 232 (1), 52–57. URL: http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/full/232/1/52 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ka Wai Lee, S., et al. 2006. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps — in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 28 (2), 341–360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873101 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, F., et al. 2006. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis alcohol extractive on serum interferon-gamma level and splenic T lymphocyte subset in mice with viral myocarditis.] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22 (3), 321–323.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16643790 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, S., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine, 13 (6), 428–433. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16716913 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin Med., 34 (5), 819–832. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080547 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wu, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother. Res., 20 (8), 646–652. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691546 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 72 (6), 1152–1156. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16575562 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Buenz, E., et al. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96 (1–2), 19–29. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15588646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Colson, S., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19 (2), 358–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J. Med. Microbiol., 54 (Pt. 8), 795–802. URL (accessed 03.16.2009).

Leu, S., et al. 2005. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (9), 1722–1725. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/9/28_1722/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ng, T., & Wang, H. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57 (12), 1509–1519. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16354395 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, B., et al. 2005. Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordyceps sinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43 (4), 543–552. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721201 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, W., et al. 2005. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of an exopolysaccharide fraction from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar fungus) on tumour-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 42 (Pt. 1), 9–15. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574120 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci., 74 (23), 2897–2908. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050427 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Siu, K., et al. 2004. Pharmacological basis of “yin-nourishing” and “yang-invigorating” actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci., 76 (4), 385–395. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15530501 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Wang, Y., et al. 2004. [An experimental study on anti-aging action of Cordyceps extract.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 29 (8), 773–776. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15506292 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Koh, J., et al. 2002. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66 (2), 407–411. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/66/2/66_407/_article/-char/en (accessed 09.25.2009).

Weng, S., et al. 2002. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J. Ethnopharmacol., 83 (1–2), 79–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413710 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2001. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci., 68 (9), 1067–1082. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212870 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Sugar, A., & McCaffrey, R. 1998. Antifungal activity of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42(6), 1424–1427. URL (full text): http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/1424?view=long&pmid=9624488 accessed 11.09.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (3), 289–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764768 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (4), 429–457. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884180 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Bai, Y., et al. 2011. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid ß(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J. Nat. Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301979 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hwang, Y., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452124 (accessed 05.26.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine, 16 (6–7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Smalinskiene, A., et al. 2009. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1171, 314–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723071 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wiegant, F., et al. 2009. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology, 10 (1), 27–42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18536978 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bleakney, T. 2008. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist. Nurs. Pract., 22 (4), 220–224. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607235 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Liu, K., et al. 2008. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci. Lett., 434 (2), 195–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304730 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 74 (2), 109–113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203055 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Soya, H., et al. 2008. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72 (9), 2476–2480. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/72/9/72_2476/_article (accessed 03.12.2009).

Tohda, C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (3), 329–339. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/107/3/107_329/_article (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jung, C., et al. 2007. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 183–187. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644291 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2007. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res., 39 (12), 894–898. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075969 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25–48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2006. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern. Med. Rev, 11 (2), 151–155. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/2/151.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (Kan Jang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine, 12 (8), 539–547. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121513 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., & Wagner, H. 2005. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single-dose administration. Phytother. Res., 19 (10), 819–838. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16261511 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hartz, A., et al. 2004. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol. Med., 34 (1), 51–61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971626 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kimura, Y., & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2–3), 447–453. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507373 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Arushanian, E., et al. 2003. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans.] Eskp. Klin. Farmakol., 66 (5), 10–13. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14650206 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rogala, E., et al. 2003. The influence of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 6 (Suppl.), 37–39. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509359 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Drozd, J., et al. 2002. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol. Pharm., 59 (5), 395–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602802 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2002. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang — fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 — on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine, 9 (7), 598–605. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487323 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med. Hypotheses, 56 (5), 567–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11388770 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci., 70 (4), 431–442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798012 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schmolz, M., et al. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother. Res., 15 (3), 268–270. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11351368 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Davydov, M., & Krikorian, A. 2000. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: A closer look. J.Ethnopharmacol., 72 (3), 345–393. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10996277 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Fujikawa, T., et al. 1996. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold-water-stressed rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 19 (9), 1227–1230. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889047 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Nishibe, S., et al. 1990. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38 (6), 1763–1765. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2208394 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Farnsworth. N., et al. 1985. “Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen.” In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol. 1, eds. H. Wagner et al., 217–284. London: Academic Press.

Medon, P., et al. 1981. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Acta Pharmalogica Sinica, 2 (4), 281–285. URL (PDF): http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/2/281.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Brekhman, I., & Dardymov, J. 1969. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia, 32 (1), 46–51. URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5788767 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rhodiola rosea

Hung, S., et al. 2011. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 18 (4), 235–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21036578 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Calcabrini, C., et al. 2010. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defenses of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 302 (3), 191–200. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cifani, C., et al. 2010. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol. Behav., 101 (5), 555–562. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837037 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Panossian, A., et al. 2010. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine, 17 (7), 481–493. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378318 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Parisi, A., et al. 2010. Effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: Preliminary results. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 50 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20308973 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Evdokimov,V. 2009. [Effect of cryopowder Rhodiola rosae L. on cardiorespiratory parameters and physical performance of humans]. Aviakosm. Ekolog. Med., 43 (6), 52–56. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169741 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Huang, S., et al. 2009. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat. Chin. J. Physiol., 52 (5), 316–324. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034236 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jeong, H., et al. 2009. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 17 (19), 6816–6823. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729316 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lee, F., et al. 2009. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance. Am. J. Chin. Med., 37 (3), 557–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19606515 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Mattioli, L., et al. 2009. Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 23 (2), 130–142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515456 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Olsson, E., et al. 2009. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med., 75 (2), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016404 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Pooja, et al. 2009. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea —“a second-generation adaptogen.” Phytother. Res., 23 (8), 1099–1102. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152369 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qu, Z., et al. 2009. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: Implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 22 (4), 318–326. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19950527 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Skarpanska–Stejnborn, A., et al. 2009. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 19 (2), 186–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19478343 (accessed 03.04.2011).

van Dierman, D., et al. 2009. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (2), 397–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168123 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Wang, H., et al. 2009. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine, 16 (2-3), 146–155. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818064 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bystritsky, A., et al. 2008. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (2), 175-180. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18307390 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, Q., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (9), 952–959. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008090952 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kobayashi, K., et al. 2008. Constituents of Rhodiola rosea showing inhibitory effect on lipase activity in mouse plasma and alimentary canal. Planta Med., 74 (14), 1716-1719. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982538 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2008. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 84-91. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054474 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qin, Y., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neurons in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 33 (23), 2842–2846. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19260327 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Shen, W., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in aortic atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (11), 1022–1025. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19213348 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2007. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord. J. Psychiatry, 61 (5), 343-348. Erratum in: Nord. J. Psychiatry, 2007; 61 (6):503. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990195 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Fintelmann, V., & Gruenwald, J. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv. Ther., 24 (4), 929-939. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901042 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Mattioli, L., & Perfumi, M. 2007. Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 21 (7), 742-750. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259204 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Jafari, M., et al. 2007. Rhodiola: A promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation Res., 10 (4), 587-602. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990971 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Perfumi, M., & Mattioli, L. 2007. Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother. Res., 21 (1), 37-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072830 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Walker, T., et al. 2007. Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men. Metabolism, 56 (8), 1111–1117. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618958 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kim, S., et al. 2006. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice. Biofactors, 26 (3), 209–219. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971752 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kwon Y., et al. 2006. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 15 (3), 425-432. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837437 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Ming, D., et al. 2005. Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Phytother. Res., 19 (9), 740–743. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16220564 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

De Bock, K., et al. 2004. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 14 (3), 298–307. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256690 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Earnest, C., et al. 2004. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 36 (3), 504-509. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076794 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Hudson, T. 2004. Women’s health update: Rhodiola rosea. Townsend Lett. URL: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_246/ai_112728038 (accessed 03.16.2008).

Kucinskaite, A., et al. 2004. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine.] Medicina (Kaunas), 40 (7), 614–619. URL (PDF): http://medicina.kmu.lt/0407/0407-02l.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Abidov, M., et al. 2003. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 136 (6), 585–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15500079 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shevtsov, V., et al. 2003. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10 (2-3), 95–105. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725561 (accessed 03.13.2009).

[No author listed.] 2002. Rhodiola rosea. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 7 (5), 421–423. URL (PDF): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410627 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Brown, R., et al. 2002. Rhodiola rosea: A phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram, J. Am. Bot. Counc., 56, 40-52. URL: http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=2333 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2000. Rhodiola rosea in stress-induced fatigue — a double-blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine, 7 (5), 365–371. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11081987 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Spasov, A., et al. 2000. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-% extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7 (2), 85–89. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839209 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Wing, S., et al. 2003. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ. Med., 14 (1), 9–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659243 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ha, Z., et al. 2002. [The effect of Rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude.] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 25 (9), 527–530. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423559 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Germano, C., et al. 1999. Arctic Root (Rhodiola rosea): The Powerful New Ginseng Alternative. NY: Kensington.

Azizov, A., & Seifulla, R. 1998. The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 61 (3), 61–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9690082 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maimeskulova, L., et al. 1997. The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realization of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 60 (1), 38–39. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9162281 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maslova, L., et al. 1994. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 57 (6), 61–63. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7756969 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1993. The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 116 (8), 175–176. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7506072 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1987. Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 103 (4), 422–424. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2952180 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Stancheva, S., & Mosharrof, A. 1987. Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines. Med. Physiol., 40, 85–87.

Petkov, V., et al. 1986. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulg., 12, 3–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3751623 (accessed 03.16.2009).