Vitamin D

Our Vitamin D is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, substantiate the preventative and clinical basis for using Our Vitamin D.

Aloia, J., et al. 2008. Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87 (6), 1952–1958. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.10.2008)

Brown, S. 2008. Vitamin D and fracture reduction: An evaluation of the existing research. Alt. Med. Rev., 13 (1), 21–33. URL (PDF): (accessed 04.01.2008).

Cannell, J., et al. 2008. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Expert Opin. Pharmacother., 9 (1), 107–118. URL (abstract): (accessed 04.01.2008).

Cannell, J., & Hollis, B. 2008. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice. Altern Med Rev., 13 (1), 6–20. URL (PDF): (accessed 04.01.2008).

Cantorna, M. 2008. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: An update. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Gigante, A., et al. 2008. Vitamin K and D association stimulates in vitro osteoblast differentiation of fracture site derived human mesenchymal stem cells. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents, 22 (1), 35–44. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.02.2009).

Jacobs, E., et al. 2008. Vitamin D insufficiency in southern Arizona. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 87 (3), 608–613. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.02.2008).

Looker, A., & Mussolino, M. 2008. Serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D and hip fracture risk in older US white adults. J. Bone Miner. Res., 23 (1), 143–150. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.12.2009).

Maalouf, J., et al. 2008. Short- and long-term safety of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 93 (7), 2693–2701. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.10.2008).

NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. 2008. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Vitamin D. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008).

Norman, A. 2008. From vitamin D to hormone D: Fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine essential for good health. Am.J. Clin. Nutr, 88 (2), 491S–499S. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.18.2008).

Palomar, X., et al. 2008. Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes. Metab., 10 (3), 185–197. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.15.2008).

Vasquez, A., & Stone, M. 2008. Vitamin D: How much is enough and how much is too much? Institute of Functional Medicine Fall Webinar Series.

Anastossios, G., et al. 2007. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 92 (6), 2017–2029. URL: (accessed 12.12.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H. 2007. Vitamin D and muscle function. Int. Congress Series, 1297, 143–147. Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis 2006. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, 4–6 May 2006, Lausanne, Switzerland. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.16.2008).

Broe, K., et al. 2007. A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: A randomized, multiple-dose study. JAGS, 55 (2), 234–239. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Gorham, E., et al. 2007. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: A quantitative meta analysis. Am. J. Prev. Med., 32 (3), 210–216. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.18.2008).

Hathcock, J., et al. 2007. Risk assessment for vitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 85 (1), 6–18. URL: (accessed 09.02.2008).

Holick, M. 2007. Vitamin D deficiency. NEJM, 357 (3), 266–281. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008) (accessed 09.03.2008).

Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 16 (3), 422–429. URL (accessed 12.11.2008).

Lappe, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: Results of a randomized trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 85 (6), 1586–1591. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Pendás–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75 (3), 193–207. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18 (7), 775–782. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84 (4), 18–28. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Finkelstein, J. 2006. Calcium plus vitamin D for postmenopausal women — Bone appétit? NEJM, 354 (7), 750–752. URL: (accessed 05.27.2006).

Francis, R., et al. 2006. Calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. QJM, 99 (6), 355–363. URL: (accessed 01.12.2009).

Garland, et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Public Health, 96 (2), 252–261. URL: (accessed 05.27.2006).

Jackson, et al. 2006. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. NEJM, 354, (7) 669–683. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008).

  Holick, M. 2007. Vitamin D deficiency. NEJM, 357 (3), 266–281. URL (subscription required): (accessed 09.03.2008) URL:

  Correction to Jackson et al., NEJM, 354 (7) 669-683. May 25, 2006. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008).

Javaid, M., et al. 2006. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: A longitudinal study. Lancet, 369 (9504), 36–43. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Norman, A. 2006. Minireview: Vitamin D receptor: New assignments for an already busy receptor. Endocrinology, 147 (12), 5542–5548. URL: (accessed 09.18.2008).

Snijder, M., et al. 2006. Vitamin D status in relation to one-year risk of recurrent falling in older men and women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 91 (8), 2980–2985. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Wolpowitz, D., & Gilchrest, B. 2006. The vitamin D questions: How much do you need and how should you get it? J. Am. Acad. Derm., 54 (2), 301-317. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.27.2006).

Andersen, R., et al. 2005. Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59 (4), 533-541. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.03.2008).

Bertone–Johnson, E., et al. 2005. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch. Intern. Med., 165 (11), 1246–1252. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293 (18), 2257–2264. Review. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and bone density in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum., 53 (6), 821–826. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.12.2009).

Flicker, L., et al. 2005. Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial. J. Am. Geriatrics Soc., 53 (11), 1881. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Dawson–Hughes, B. 2005. The role of vitamin D in fracture prevention. BoneKEy-Osteovision, 2 (4), 6–10. URL:;2/4/6 (accessed 01.13.2009).

Giovannucci, E. 2005. The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: A review (United States). Cancer Causes Control, 16 (2), 83–95. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.27.2006).

Gorham, E., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 97 (1–2), 179–194. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.27.2006).

Liu, S., et al. 2005. Dietary calcium, vitamin D, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older US women. Diabetes Care, 28 (12), 2926–2932. URL; (accessed 09.03.2008).

Moore, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States differ among ethnic groups. J. Nutr., 135 (10), 2478–2485. URL: (accessed 09.15.2008).

Sato, Y., et al. 2005. Amelioration of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D by sunlight exposure in hospitalized, elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. J. Bone Miner. Res., 20 (8), 1327–1333. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.12.2009).

Steingrimsdottir, L., et al. 2005. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. JAMA, 294 (18), 2336–2341. URL: (accessed 09.15.2008).

Armas, L., et al. 2004. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89 (11), 5387–5391. URL: (accessed 09.15.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291 (16), 1999–2006. URL: (accessed 12.10.2008).

Bischoff–Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Higher 25–hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > 60 y. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80 (3), 752–758. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Chiu, K., et al. 2004. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79 (5), 820–825 URL: (accessed 09.15.2008).

Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79 (3), 362–371. URL: (accessed 12.10.2008).

Parikh, S. 2004. The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89 (3), 1196–1199. URL: (accessed 05.26.2006).

VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58 (8), 1095–1109. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Vasquez, A., et al. 2004. The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): A paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 10 (5), 28–36. URL (PDF): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Vieth, R. 2004. Why the optimal requirement for vitamin D3 is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 89–90 (1–5), 575–579. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.03.2008).

Vieth, R., et al. 2004. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU) per day on biochemical responses and the well-being of patients. Nutrition J., 3 (1), 8. URL: (accessed 05.27.2006).

Bischoff, H., et al. 2003. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: A randomized controlled trial. J. Bone Min. Res., 18 (2), 1999–2006. URL: (accessed 12.10.2008).

Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57 (4), 258–261. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.15.2008).

Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95 (23), 1765–1771. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Heaney, R., et al. 2003. Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22 (2), 142–146. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Heaney, R., et al. 2003. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 77 (1), 204–210. URL: (accessed 09.05.2008).

Malabanan, A., & Holick, M. 2003. Vitamin D and bone health in postmenopausal women. J. Women’s Health (Larchmt.), 12 (2), 151–156. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.09.2008).

Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326 (7387), 469. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Chapuy, M., et al. 2002. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: Confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk. The Decalyos II study. Osteoporos. Int., 13 (3), 257–264. URL (accessed 01.13.2009). URL (abstract): (accessed 01.13.2009).

European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate–General. 2002. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008).

Janssen, H., et al. 2002. Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75 (4), 611–615. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Sigmund, C. 2002. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J. Clin. Invest., 110 (2), 155–156. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Chatterjee, M. 2001. Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475(1–2), 69–87. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Pfeifer, M., et al. 2001. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86 (4), 1633–1637. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Sato, Y., et al. 2001. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of hip fractures among disabled elderly stroke patients. Stroke, 32 (7), 1673–1677. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Vieth, R., et al. 2001. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (2), 288–294. URL: (accessed 09.10.2008).

Glerup, H., et al. 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247 (2), 260–268. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2008).

Platz, E., et al. 2000. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev., 9 (10), 1059–1065. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

John, E., et al. 1999. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8 (5), 399–406. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

LeBoff, M., et al. 1999. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA, 281 (16), 1505–1511. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Vieth, R. 1999. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. , 69 (5), 842–856. URL: (accessed 09.03.2008).

Boucher, B. 1998. Inadequate vitamin D status: Does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome ‘X’? Br. J. Nutr., 79 (4), 315–327. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.15.2008).

Lansdowne, A., & Provost, S. 1998. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 135 (4), 319–323. URL (abstract): (accessed 05.27.2006).

Dawson–Hughes, B., et al. 1997. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. NEJM, 337 (10), 670–676. URL: (accessed 12.11.2008).

Holick, M. 1995. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61 (Suppl.), 638–645. URL (PDF): (accessed 09.15.2008).

Chapuy, M., et al. 1994. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. BMJ, 308 (6936), 1081–1082. URL: (accessed 01.13.2009).

Need, A., et al. 1993. Effects of skin thickness, age, body fat, and sunlight on serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 58 (6), 882–885. URL: (PDF): (accessed 09.15.2008).

Chapuy, M., et al. 1992. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. NEJM, 327 (23), 1637–1642. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.13.2009).