Weight Loss and Adrenal Support Program


Our Adaptisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Adaptisol.

Astragalus membranaceus

Gao, X., et al. 2011. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice. Inflammation, 34 (1), 10–21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237952 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Li, M., et al. 2011. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2), 412–419. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pubmed/20951192 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Sevimli–Gür, C., et al. 2011. In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291980 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. 2011. [Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 42 (1), 48–51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355300 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hong, F., et al. 2010. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128203 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jiang, J., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 13 (4), 396–405. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199477 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Li, M., et al. 2010. [Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 30 (1), 7–10. URL (PDF): http://www.j-smu.com/pdf2/201001/2010017.pdf (accessed 03.04.02011).

Liu, Q., et al. 2010. Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620204 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lu, M., et al. 2010. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo studies. J. Trauma, 68 (2), 434–440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154555 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yang, Q., et al. 2010. [Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor neorosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 30 (7), 699–701. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929124 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yin, X., et al. 2010. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 397 (2), 232–238. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546703 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Zhang, D., & Wang, D. 2010. [Progressive studies on biological activity of total flavonoids of Astragalus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi., 35 (2), 253–256. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20394306 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2009. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (1), 28–34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103273 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2009. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism. Phytomedicine, 16 (5), 416–425. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201177 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wang, S., et al. 2009. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32 (1), 132–135. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/32/1/32_132/_article (accessed 03.10.2009).

Xu, A., et al. 2009. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice. Endocrinology, 150 (2), 625–633. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18927219 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ai, P., et al. 2008. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human naturiuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 413–421. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243612 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Du, Q., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 86 (7), 449–457. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641694 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2008. [Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in diabetic mice.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (2), 166–170. URL (PDF): http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/20082261195.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Jiang, B., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNFalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1434–1439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18972582 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Peng, X., et al. 2008. [Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy.] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 46 (1), 55–60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353241 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ryu, M., et al. 2008. Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J. Ethnopharmacol., 115 (2), 184–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996413 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shen, H., et al. 2008. Astragalus membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (2), 363–369. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226482 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Sun, W., et al. 2008. Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette–Guérin and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 103 (2), 143–149. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816297 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yuan, W., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1259–1264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622899 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2008. [Effects of Astragalus on renal tubulointerstitial lesions and expression of NF-kappaB and MCP-1 in renal tissues in rat experimental IgA nephropathy.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 10 (2), 173–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433541 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhu, S., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 29 (1), 57–64. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/29/57.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hu, J., et al. 2007. [Protective effects of Astragaloside and Quercetin on rat myocardial cells after hypoxia.] Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 23 (3), 175–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019054 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2007. The immunotherapeutic effects of Astragaluspolysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (3), 470–476. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/3/470/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Luo, G., et al. 2007. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells and inflammatory response after hemorrahagic shock-reperfusion in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 (14), 1436–1440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966360 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ma, W., et al. 2007. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (11), 2079–2083. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/11/2079/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25-48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, H., et al. 2007. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J. Int. Med. Res., 35 (1), 84–90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408058 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. [Effect of astragaloside on myocardial fibrosis in chronic myocarditis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 27 (8), 728–731. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879539 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (3), 387–392. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900838 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zwickey, H., et al. 2007. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study. Phytother. Res., 21 (11), 1109–1112. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661330 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Cai, X., et al. 2006. [Experimental treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in rats with acupoint injection of Astragalus parenteral solution.] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 35 (4), 430–434, 439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16924709 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gao, Q., et al. 2006. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. Planta Med., 72 (13), 1227–1231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16902872 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yu, J., et al. 2006. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 84 (6), 579–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16900242 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wu, J., et al. 2006. Effect of Astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunity. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 12 (1), 29–31. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571280 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, M., et al. 2006. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (2), 229–236. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/27/229.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 2006. [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 8 (5), 376–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052394 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Astragaloside IV exerts antiviral effects against coxsackievirus B3 by upregulating interferon-gamma. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 47 (2), 190–195. 2006. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495755 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Ko, J., et al. 2005. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (37), 5787–5794. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5787.asp (accessed 03.12.2009).

Lee, H., & Lee, J. 2005. Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Am. J. Chin. Med., 33 (1), 127–138. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15844840 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2005. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83 (12), 2775–2782. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/83/12/2775 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ning, K., et al. 2005. [Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (21), 1670–1672. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16400945 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, S. et al. 2004. [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 24 (2), 121–123. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015443 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shao, B., et al. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 320 (4), 1103–1111. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15249203 (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2003. Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (1), 72–77. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/1/72.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mills, S., & Bone, K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 273–279. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Huang, Z., et al. 1995. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 15 (6), 328–330. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7549379 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Chu, D., et al. 1994. The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and AIDS patients induced by F3 – a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 16 (3), 167–171. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7956691 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhao, X. 1992. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 12 (11), 679–671, 645. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1301849 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Qian, Z., et al. 1990. Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (8), 647–651. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173655 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on natural killer cell activity and induction of alpha- and gamma-interferon in patients with Coxsackie B viral myocarditis. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103, 304–307.

Yuan, W., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electric activities of cultured rat beating heart cells infected with Coxsackie B-2 virus. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (3), 177–182. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2164463 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, D. 1989. Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 11 (3), 180–183. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2612327 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Cordyceps sinensis

Sheng L., et al. 2011. An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 163 (5), 669–678. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811959 (accessed 03.04.0211).

Chen, S., et al. 2010. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (5), 585–590. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804368 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Chen, W., et al. 2010. Effects of the acid polysaccharide fraction isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages in vitro. Cell Immunol., 262 (1), 69–74. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138259 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Xiao, G., et al. 2010. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol., 263 (2), 241–250. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451901 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cheung, J., et al. 2009. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: Signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124 (1), 61–68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446414 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Guo, J., et al. 2009. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948751 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Ji, D., et al. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phyther. Res., 23 (1), 116–122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803231 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Li, C., et al. 2009. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J. Leukoc. Biol., 85. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (PDF): http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/rapidpdf/jlb.0908573v1 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shi, B., et al. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 9 (5), 582–586. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557879 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Zhou, X., et al. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61 (3), 279–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222900 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Park, D., et al. 2008. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57BI/6N mice. J. Med. Food, 11 (4), 784–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053874 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Patterson, R. 2008. Cordyceps: A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry, 69 (7), 1469–1495. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343466 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: A study on its histological basis. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1136–1144. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=167219772008111136 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822912 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Yoon, T., et al. 2008. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensis by submerged culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 80 (6), 1087–1093. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690428 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2008. Chemical composition and bioactivity changes in stale rice after fermentation with Cordyceps sinensis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106 (2), 188–193. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jbb/106/2/106_188/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhou, X., et al. 2008. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (5), 967–980. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051361 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Huang, H., et al. 2007. [Inhibitory effects of Cordyceps extract on growth of colon cancer cells.] Zhong Yao Cai, 30 (3), 310–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634040 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ko, K., & Leung, H. 2007. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chin. Med., 2 (1), 3. URL: http://www.cmjournal.org/content/2/1/3 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2007. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 278–285. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17029726 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kuo, M., et al. 2007. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: Enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75 (4), 769–775. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310399 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Nishizawa, K., et al. 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (9), 1758–1762. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/9/1758/_pdf (accessed 03.16.2009).

Rao, Y., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (1), 78–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822865 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Xiao, J., & Zhong, J. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Cordyceps species and their antitumor activity studies. Recent Pat. Biotechnol., 1 (2), 123–137. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19075836 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 44 (2), 439–443. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, Q., & Wu, J. 2007. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 232 (1), 52–57. URL: http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/full/232/1/52 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ka Wai Lee, S., et al. 2006. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps — in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 28 (2), 341–360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873101 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, F., et al. 2006. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis alcohol extractive on serum interferon-gamma level and splenic T lymphocyte subset in mice with viral myocarditis.] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22 (3), 321–323.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16643790 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, S., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine, 13 (6), 428–433. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16716913 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin Med., 34 (5), 819–832. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080547 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wu, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother. Res., 20 (8), 646–652. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691546 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 72 (6), 1152–1156. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16575562 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Buenz, E., et al. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96 (1–2), 19–29. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15588646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Colson, S., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19 (2), 358–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J. Med. Microbiol., 54 (Pt. 8), 795–802. URL (accessed 03.16.2009).

Leu, S., et al. 2005. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (9), 1722–1725. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/9/28_1722/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ng, T., & Wang, H. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57 (12), 1509–1519. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16354395 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, B., et al. 2005. Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordyceps sinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43 (4), 543–552. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721201 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, W., et al. 2005. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of an exopolysaccharide fraction from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar fungus) on tumour-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 42 (Pt. 1), 9–15. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574120 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci., 74 (23), 2897–2908. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050427 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Siu, K., et al. 2004. Pharmacological basis of “yin-nourishing” and “yang-invigorating” actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci., 76 (4), 385–395. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15530501 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Wang, Y., et al. 2004. [An experimental study on anti-aging action of Cordyceps extract.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 29 (8), 773–776. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15506292 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Koh, J., et al. 2002. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66 (2), 407–411. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/66/2/66_407/_article/-char/en (accessed 09.25.2009).

Weng, S., et al. 2002. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J. Ethnopharmacol., 83 (1–2), 79–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413710 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2001. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci., 68 (9), 1067–1082. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212870 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Sugar, A., & McCaffrey, R. 1998. Antifungal activity of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42(6), 1424–1427. URL (full text): http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/1424?view=long&pmid=9624488 accessed 11.09.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (3), 289–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764768 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (4), 429–457. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884180 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Bai, Y., et al. 2011. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid ß(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J. Nat. Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301979 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hwang, Y., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452124 (accessed 05.26.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine, 16 (6–7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Smalinskiene, A., et al. 2009. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1171, 314–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723071 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wiegant, F., et al. 2009. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology, 10 (1), 27–42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18536978 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bleakney, T. 2008. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist. Nurs. Pract., 22 (4), 220–224. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607235 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Liu, K., et al. 2008. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci. Lett., 434 (2), 195–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304730 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 74 (2), 109–113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203055 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Soya, H., et al. 2008. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72 (9), 2476–2480. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/72/9/72_2476/_article (accessed 03.12.2009).

Tohda, C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (3), 329–339. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/107/3/107_329/_article (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jung, C., et al. 2007. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 183–187. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644291 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2007. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res., 39 (12), 894–898. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075969 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25–48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2006. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern. Med. Rev, 11 (2), 151–155. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/2/151.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (Kan Jang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine, 12 (8), 539–547. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121513 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., & Wagner, H. 2005. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single-dose administration. Phytother. Res., 19 (10), 819–838. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16261511 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hartz, A., et al. 2004. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol. Med., 34 (1), 51–61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971626 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kimura, Y., & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2–3), 447–453. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507373 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Arushanian, E., et al. 2003. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans.] Eskp. Klin. Farmakol., 66 (5), 10–13. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14650206 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rogala, E., et al. 2003. The influence of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 6 (Suppl.), 37–39. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509359 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Drozd, J., et al. 2002. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol. Pharm., 59 (5), 395–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602802 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2002. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang — fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 — on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine, 9 (7), 598–605. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487323 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med. Hypotheses, 56 (5), 567–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11388770 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci., 70 (4), 431–442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798012 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schmolz, M., et al. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother. Res., 15 (3), 268–270. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11351368 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Davydov, M., & Krikorian, A. 2000. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: A closer look. J.Ethnopharmacol., 72 (3), 345–393. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10996277 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Fujikawa, T., et al. 1996. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold-water-stressed rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 19 (9), 1227–1230. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889047 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Nishibe, S., et al. 1990. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38 (6), 1763–1765. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2208394 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Farnsworth. N., et al. 1985. “Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen.” In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol. 1, eds. H. Wagner et al., 217–284. London: Academic Press.

Medon, P., et al. 1981. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Acta Pharmalogica Sinica, 2 (4), 281–285. URL (PDF): http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/2/281.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Brekhman, I., & Dardymov, J. 1969. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia, 32 (1), 46–51. URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5788767 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rhodiola rosea

Hung, S., et al. 2011. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 18 (4), 235–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21036578 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Calcabrini, C., et al. 2010. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defenses of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 302 (3), 191–200. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cifani, C., et al. 2010. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol. Behav., 101 (5), 555–562. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837037 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Panossian, A., et al. 2010. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine, 17 (7), 481–493. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378318 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Parisi, A., et al. 2010. Effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: Preliminary results. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 50 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20308973 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Evdokimov,V. 2009. [Effect of cryopowder Rhodiola rosae L. on cardiorespiratory parameters and physical performance of humans]. Aviakosm. Ekolog. Med., 43 (6), 52–56. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169741 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Huang, S., et al. 2009. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat. Chin. J. Physiol., 52 (5), 316–324. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034236 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jeong, H., et al. 2009. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 17 (19), 6816–6823. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729316 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lee, F., et al. 2009. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance. Am. J. Chin. Med., 37 (3), 557–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19606515 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Mattioli, L., et al. 2009. Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 23 (2), 130–142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515456 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Olsson, E., et al. 2009. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med., 75 (2), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016404 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Pooja, et al. 2009. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea —“a second-generation adaptogen.” Phytother. Res., 23 (8), 1099–1102. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152369 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qu, Z., et al. 2009. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: Implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 22 (4), 318–326. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19950527 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Skarpanska–Stejnborn, A., et al. 2009. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 19 (2), 186–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19478343 (accessed 03.04.2011).

van Dierman, D., et al. 2009. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (2), 397–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168123 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Wang, H., et al. 2009. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine, 16 (2-3), 146–155. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818064 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bystritsky, A., et al. 2008. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (2), 175-180. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18307390 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, Q., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (9), 952–959. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008090952 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kobayashi, K., et al. 2008. Constituents of Rhodiola rosea showing inhibitory effect on lipase activity in mouse plasma and alimentary canal. Planta Med., 74 (14), 1716-1719. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982538 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2008. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 84-91. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054474 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qin, Y., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neurons in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 33 (23), 2842–2846. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19260327 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Shen, W., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in aortic atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (11), 1022–1025. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19213348 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2007. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord. J. Psychiatry, 61 (5), 343-348. Erratum in: Nord. J. Psychiatry, 2007; 61 (6):503. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990195 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Fintelmann, V., & Gruenwald, J. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv. Ther., 24 (4), 929-939. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901042 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Mattioli, L., & Perfumi, M. 2007. Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 21 (7), 742-750. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259204 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Jafari, M., et al. 2007. Rhodiola: A promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation Res., 10 (4), 587-602. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990971 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Perfumi, M., & Mattioli, L. 2007. Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother. Res., 21 (1), 37-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072830 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Walker, T., et al. 2007. Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men. Metabolism, 56 (8), 1111–1117. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618958 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kim, S., et al. 2006. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice. Biofactors, 26 (3), 209–219. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971752 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kwon Y., et al. 2006. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 15 (3), 425-432. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837437 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Ming, D., et al. 2005. Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Phytother. Res., 19 (9), 740–743. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16220564 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

De Bock, K., et al. 2004. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 14 (3), 298–307. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256690 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Earnest, C., et al. 2004. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 36 (3), 504-509. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076794 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Hudson, T. 2004. Women’s health update: Rhodiola rosea. Townsend Lett. URL: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_246/ai_112728038 (accessed 03.16.2008).

Kucinskaite, A., et al. 2004. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine.] Medicina (Kaunas), 40 (7), 614–619. URL (PDF): http://medicina.kmu.lt/0407/0407-02l.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Abidov, M., et al. 2003. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 136 (6), 585–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15500079 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shevtsov, V., et al. 2003. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10 (2-3), 95–105. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725561 (accessed 03.13.2009).

[No author listed.] 2002. Rhodiola rosea. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 7 (5), 421–423. URL (PDF): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410627 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Brown, R., et al. 2002. Rhodiola rosea: A phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram, J. Am. Bot. Counc., 56, 40-52. URL: http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=2333 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2000. Rhodiola rosea in stress-induced fatigue — a double-blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine, 7 (5), 365–371. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11081987 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Spasov, A., et al. 2000. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-% extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7 (2), 85–89. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839209 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Wing, S., et al. 2003. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ. Med., 14 (1), 9–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659243 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ha, Z., et al. 2002. [The effect of Rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude.] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 25 (9), 527–530. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423559 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Germano, C., et al. 1999. Arctic Root (Rhodiola rosea): The Powerful New Ginseng Alternative. NY: Kensington.

Azizov, A., & Seifulla, R. 1998. The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 61 (3), 61–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9690082 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maimeskulova, L., et al. 1997. The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realization of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 60 (1), 38–39. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9162281 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Maslova, L., et al. 1994. The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 57 (6), 61–63. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7756969 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1993. The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 116 (8), 175–176. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7506072 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lishmanov, I., et al. 1987. Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 103 (4), 422–424. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2952180 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Stancheva, S., & Mosharrof, A. 1987. Effect of the extract of Rhodiola rosea L. on the content of the brain biogenic monamines. Med. Physiol., 40, 85–87.

Petkov, V., et al. 1986. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Bulg., 12, 3–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3751623 (accessed 03.16.2009).


Our M-Boost is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of M-Boost.

Vitamin D

Belenchia, A.M., et al. 2013. Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(4):774-81. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23407306 (accessed 05.07.2013).

Biancuzzo, R.M. 2013. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in response to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(3):97-9). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386645 (accessed 05.07.2013).

Caron-Jobin, M., et al. 2011. Elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations, vitamin D, and calcium intakes are associated with reduced adipocyte size in women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 19(7):1335-41. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21527900 (accessed 05.13.2013).

Forsythe, L.K., et al. 2012. Effect of adiposity on vitamin D status and the 25-hydroxychholecalciferol response to supplementation in healthy young and older Irish adults. Br J Nutr. 107(1):126-34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21733320 (Accessed 05.13.2013).

Fung, G. J., et al. 2012. Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Am J Clin Nutr. 96(1):24-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22648727 (accessed 05.09.2013).

LeBlanc, E.S., et al. 2012. Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and weight gain in elderly women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 21(10):1066-73, URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22731629 (accessed 05.07.2013).

Manios, Y., et al. Changes in body composition following a dietary and lifestyle intervention trial: the postmenopausal health study. Maturitas. 62(1): 58-65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19118956 (accessed 05/13/2013).

Nagpal, J., et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med. 26(1):19-27. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19125756 (accessed 05.13.2013).

Nazarian, S., et al. Vitamin D3 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Transl Res. 158(5):276-81. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22005267 (accessed 05.14.2013).

Nikooyeh, B., et al. Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(4): 764-71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21289226 (accessed 05.13.2013).

Salehpour, A., et al. 2012. Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 108(10): 1866-73. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317756 (accessed 05.13.2013).

Salehpour, A., et al. 2012. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healty overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 11:78. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3514135/ (accessed 05.07.2013).

Shab-Bidar, S., et al. 2011. Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. BMC Med. 9:125. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3239240/ (accessed 05.13.2013).

Shapses, S.A., et al. 2013. Vitamin D supplementation and calcium absorption during caloric restriction: a randomized double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(3):637-45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364004 (accessed 05.06.2013).

Sneve, M., et al. 2008. Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not result in weight reduction in overweight and obese subjects. Eur J Endocinol. 159(6): 675-84. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056900 (accessed 05.13.2013).

Tamer, G., et al. 2012. Is vitamin D deficiency an independent risk factor for obesity and abdominal obesity in women? Endokrynol Pol. 63(3):196-201. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744625 (accessed 05.09.2013).

Yin, X., et al. 2012. Serum 25(OH)D is inversely ossociated with metabolic syndrome risk profile among urban middle-aged Chinese population. Nutr. J. 11:68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22958612 (accessed 05.07.2013).

Zitterman, A., et al. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5): 1321-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321573 (accessed 05.13.2013).

B Vitamins
(Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B 12, Biotin)

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Baily, S. E. and Ayling, J. E. 2009. The extremely slow and variable activity of dihydrofolate reductase in human liver and its implications for high folic acid intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 106(35): 15424-15429. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0902072106. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730961/?tool=pubmed (accessed 5/14/2012).

Baker, H., et al. 1975. Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamin and vitamin B6. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28, 1377–1380.

Bart, S. Sr., et al. 2012. Folate status and homocysteine levels during a 24-week oral administration of folate-containign oral contraceptive: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, US-based multicenter study. Contraception. 85(1): 42-50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067790 (accessed 5/15/2012).

Batra, V., et al. 2010. Enhanced one-carbon flux towards DNA methylation: Effect of dietary methyl supplements against gamma-radiation-induced epigenetic modicationas. Chem Biol Interac., 183(3): 425-33. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19931232 (Accessed 5/15/2012).

Bird, L. M., et al. 2011. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet A., 155A(12): 2956-63. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34297. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002941 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Cagnacci, A., et al. 2009. High-dose short-term folate administration modifies ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. A placebo-controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63(10): 1266-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19603054 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.

Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

Davis, B., et al. 1982. Enhanced absorption of oral vitamin B12 from a resin ascorbate administered to normal subjects. Manip. Physiol. Ter., 5, 123–127.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Fava, M., and Mischoulon, D. 2009. Folate in depression: efficacy, safety, differences in formulations, and clinical issues. J Clin Psychiatry. 70 Supple 5: 12-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19909688 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Godfrey, P. S., et al. 1990. Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methylfolate. Lancet, 336(8712): 392-5. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1974941 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Greenberg, J. A., and Bell, S. J. 2011. Multivitamin Supplementation During Pregnancy: Emphasis on Folic Acid and L-Methylfolate. Rev Obstet Gynecol., 4 (3-4): 126-7. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250974/?tool=pubmed (accessed 5/14/2012).

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305

Kelly, P., et al. 1997. Unmetabolized folic acid in serum: acute studies in subjects consuming fortified food and supplements. Am J Clin Nutr., 65(6): 1790-5. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9174474 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.

Lamers, Y., et al. 2006. Red blood cell folate concentrations increase more after supplementation with [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate than with folic acid in women of childbearing age. Am J Clin Nutr. 84(1): 156-61.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

McCormick, D. 1975. Biotin. Nutr. Rev., 33, 97–102.

Meshkin, B., Blum, K. 2007. Folate nutrigenetics: a convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonist pharmacogenetics. Drug Metab Lett., 1(1): 55-60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19356019 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40, 212-218.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.

Pietrzik, K., et al. 2010. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacokinet., 49(8): 535-48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20608755 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Scambi, C., et al. 2009. Preliminary evidence for cell membrane amelioration in children with cystic fibrosis by 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation: a single arm trial. PLoS One. 4(3):e4782. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19277125 (accessed 5/15/2012).

Sharp, L., Little, J. 2004. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol., 159(5): 423-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14977639 (accessed 5/14/2012).

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.


He, Y.H., et al. 2011. The calcium-sensing receptor affects fat accumulation via effects on antilipolytic pathways in adipose tissue of rats fed low-calcium diets. J Nutr. 141(11): 1938-46. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/11/1938.long (accessed 06.11.2013).

Josse, A.R., et al. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet – and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass los and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J Nutr. 141(9):1626-34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775530 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Laraichi, S., et al. 2013. Dietary Supplementation of Calcium may Counteract Obesity in Mice Mediated by Changes in Plasma Fatty Acids. Lipids. June 1, 2013 Epub ahead of print. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23729396 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Lewis, J.R., et al. 2011. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up. J Bone Miner Res. 26(1): 35-41. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20614474 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Mitri, J., et al. 2011. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic ß cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 94(2): 486-494. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142723/ (accessed 06.11.2013).

Nakamura, K., et al. 2012. Effect of low-dose calcium supplements on bone loss in perimenopausal and postmenopausal Asian women: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 27(11): 2264-70. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653713 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Nobre, J.L., et al. 2012. Calcium supplementation prevents obesity, hyperleptinaemia and hyperglycaemia in adult rats programmed by early weaning. Br J Nutr. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070983 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Nobre, J.L., et al. 2011. Calcium supplementation reverts central adiposity, leptin, and insulin resistance in adult offspring programmed by neonatal nicotine exposure. J Endocrinol. 210(3): 349-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680618 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Perez-Gallardo, L., et al. 2009. Effect of calcium-enriched high-fat diet on calcium, magnesium and zinc retention in mice. Br J Nutr. 101(10): 1463-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18986597 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Racovan, M., et al. 2012. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and incident rheumatoid arthritis: the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium plus Vitamin D trial. Rheumatol Int. 32(12): 3823-30. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190273 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Rosenblum, J.L., et al. 2012. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 95(1): 101-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170363 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Rossom, R.C., et al. 2012. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and cognitive impairment in the women’s health initiative. J Am Geriatr Soc. 60(12): 2197-205. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176129 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Shalileh, M., et al. The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet. J Res Med Sci. 15(4): 191-201. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21526081 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Torres, M.R., et al. 2010. Effects of a high-calcium energy-reduced diet on abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Brazillian subjects. Int J Clin Pract. 64(8): 1076-83. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642707 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Yanovski, J.A., et al. 2009. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and adiposity in overweidht and obese adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528561 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Yin, J., et al. 2010. Calcium supplementation for 2 years improves bone mineral accretion and lean body mass in Chinese adolescents. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 19(2): 152-60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460227 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Zemel, M.B. 2004. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 79(5): 907S-912S. URL: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/5/907S.long (accessed 06.11.2013).


Abayomi, A.I., et al. 2011. Effect of Magnesium pre-treatment on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Afr Health Sci. 11(1): 79-84. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21572861 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Abdelmalik, P.A., et al. 2012. Magnesium as an effective adjunct therapy for drug resistant seizures. Can J Neurol Sci. 39(3): 323-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547512 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Abbott, L., & Rude, R. 1993. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 19, 314–322.

Carpenter, T.O., et al. 2006. A randomized controlled study of effets of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(12):4866-72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17018656 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Chacko, S.A., et al. 2011. Magesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(2): 463-473. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021435/ (accessed 06.11.2013).

Creedon, A., et al. 1999. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 82, 63–71.

Dreosti, I. 1995. Magnesium status and health. Nutr. Rev., 53, S23–S27.

Farvid, M.S., et al. 2011. Improving neuropathy scores in type 2 diabetic patients using micronutrients supplementation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 93(1): 86-94. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21496936 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Hadjistavri, L.S., et al. 2010. Beneficial effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profile. Med Sci Monit. 16(6): CR307-312. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20531272 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Hartwig, A. 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 113–121.

Higdon, J. & Drake, V.J., 2007. The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. Web (http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/magnesium/) (accessed 06.13.2013).

Houston, M. 2011. The role of magnesium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 13(11): 843-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051430 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Ige, O.A., et al. 2010. Pretreatment effect of magnesium on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Afr J Med Med Sci. 39 Suppl:103-7 URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22416651 (accessed 06.10.2013).

Lal, J., et al. 2003. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on lipid profile and blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Assoc Physicians India. 51:37-42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12693452 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Luoma, H., et al. 1998. Seven weeks feeding of magnesium and fluoride modifies plasma lipids of hypercholesterolaemic rats in late growth phase. Magnes Res. 11(4): 271-82. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884985 (accessed 06.11.2013).

McCarty, M.F. 2005. Nutraceutical resources for diabetes prevention – an update. Med Hypotheses. 64(1): 151-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533633 (accessed 06.10.2013).

Mooren, F.C., et al. 2011. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects – a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 13(3): 281-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21205110 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Mountokalakis, T. 1987. Effects of aging, chronic disease, and multiple supplements on magnesium requirements. Magnesium, 6, 5-11.

Nielson, F.H., et al. 2010. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res. 23(4): 158-68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199787 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Nielsen, F.H., et al. 2007. Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 26(2):121-32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536123 (accessed 06.10.2013)/

Olatunji, L.A. & Soladoye, A.O. 2007. Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci. 36(2): 155-61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19205579 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Paolisso, G., et al. 1992. Daily magnesium supplements improves glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 55(6): 1161-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1595589 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Rodriguez-Moran, M., et al. 2011. The role of magnesium in type 2 diabetes: a brief based-clinical review. Magnes Res. 24(4):156-62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198525 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Rasmussen, H.S., et al. 1989. Influence of magnesium substitution therapy on blood lipid composition in patients with ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Arch Intern Med. 149(5): 1050-3. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2719498 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Shivakumar, K., & Kumar, B. 1997. Magnesium deficiency enhances oxidative stress and collagen synthesis in vivo in the aorta of rats. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol., 29, 1273–1278.

Sojka, J., & Weaver, C. 1995. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr. Rev., 53, 71–74.

Song, Y., et al. 2006. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med. 23(10): 1050-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16978367 (accessed 06.05.2013).

Terighat Esfanjani, A., et al. 2012. The effects of magnesium, L-carnitine, and concurrent magnesium-L-carnitine supplementation in migraine prophylaxis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 150(1-3):42-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895810 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Virag, V., et al. 2011. [Effects of magnesium supplementation on calcium and magnesium levels, and redox homeostasis in normolipidemic and food-induced hyperlipidemic rats]. Orv Hetil. 152(27): 1075-81. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21676674 (accessed 06.11.2013).

Volpe, S., et al. 1993. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: A review. Magnesium Res., 6, 291–296.


Sharma, S., et al. 2011. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA(1)C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetes. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. [Epub ahead of print] URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21570271 (accessed 06.20.2011).

Albarracin, C., et al. 2008. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 24 (1), 41-51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17506119 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Anton, S., et al. 2008. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol. Ther., 10 (5), 405-412. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2753428/?tool=pubmed (accessed 10.25.2011).

Lukaski, H., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: Effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition, 23 (3), 187-195. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17291720 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Broadhurst, C., & Domenico, P. 2006. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus — a review. Diabetes Technol. Ther., 8 (6), 677-687. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17109600 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Singer, G., & Geohas, J. 2006. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol. Ther., 8 (6), 636-643. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17109595 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Wang, Z., et al. 2006. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. J. Nutr., 136 (2), 415-420. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/136/2/415.long (accessed 10.25.2011).

Docherty, J., et al. 2005. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: Effect on carbohydrate craving. J. Psychiatr. Pract., 11 (5), 302-314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16184071 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Vincent, J. 2003. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med., 33 (3), 213-230. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Cefalu, W., et al. 2002. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats. J. Nutr., 132 (6), 1107–1114. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/132/6/1107.long (accessed 10.25.2011).

Sphaeranthus indicus

Bafna, A.R. & Mishra, S.H. 2007. Immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of lfower heads of Pshaeranthus indicus Linn. J Herb Pharmacother. 7(1): 25-37. URL (astract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17594985 (accessed 05/02/2013).

Chakrabarti, D., et al. 2012. NPS31807, a standardized extract from Sphaeranthus indicus, inhibits inflammatory, migratory and proliferative activity in keratinocytes and immune cells. Pharmacology & Pharmacy. 3:178-194. URL: http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=18720& (accessed 05/02/2013).

Doss, A. 2009. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants. Anc Sci Life. 29(2): 12-6. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22557345 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Fonseca, L.c., et al. 2010. 7-hydroxyfullanolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production from immune cells and is orally efficacious in animal models of inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 644(1-3): 220-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20621086 (accessed 05/02/2013).

Galani, V. J., et al. 2010. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Ayurveda Res. 1 (4): 247-253. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059449/ (accessed 03/19/2013).

Ghaisas, M., et al. 2010. Preventive effect of Phaeranthus indicus during progression of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in mice. Pharm Biol. 48(12): 1371-5. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20738176 (accessed 3/19/2013).

Johri, R., et al. 2009. Antidiabetic effects of polyherbal preparation as compared to standard allopathic drugs in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Biochemical and Cellular Archives. 9(1): 55-62. URL (abstract only): http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20093125920.html;jsessionid=D4572405B9290CBDBE272A4A0640793F?gitCommit=4.13.20-5-ga6ad01a (accessed 03/19/2013).

Kumar, V.P., et al. 2006. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 107(2): 182-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678369 (accessed 05/02/2013).

Lau, F.C., et al. 2011. Efficacy and tolerability of Meratrim – a novel formulation for weight management: Results from two, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies. Presented 10/3/2011 at the 29th Annual Obesity Society Annual Meeting. Poster number 590-P.

Lau, C.F., et al. 2011. Efficacy and tolerability of Merastin™ - a novel herbal formulation for weight management: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. FASEB J. 25: (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9. Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC, April 10,2011 – Program No.601.9, Poster A278. URL (abstract): http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/25/1_MeetingAbstracts/601.9 (accessed 04/16/2013).

Mathew, J. E., et al. 2012. Effect of ethanol extract on Sphaeranthus indicus on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. . Nat Prod Res. 26(10): 933-8. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21790496 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Mishra, B.B., et al. 2007. A novel flavonoid C-glycoside from Sphaeranthus indicus L. (family Compositae). Molecules. 12(10): 2288-91. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17978758 & http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/12/10/2288 (full text) (accessed 05/01/2013).

Nahata, A., et al. 2012. Sphaeranthus indicus Induces Apoptosis Through Mitochrondrial-Dependent Pathway in HL-60 Cells and Exerts Cytotoxic Potential on Several Human Cancer Cell Lines. Integr Cancer Ther. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914874 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Nahata, A., Dixit, V. K. 2011. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats. Phytother Res. 25(12): 1839-48. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503998 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Nanda, B. K., et al. 2010. Anti-inflammatory activity of whole parts of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2 (1) 181-188. URL: http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/DPL-vol2-iss1/DerPharmaciaLettre-%202010-2-1-181-188.pdf (accessed 03/19/2019).

Patel, M. B., Amin, D. 2012. Sphaeranthus indicus flower derived constituents exhibits synergistic effect against acetylcholinesterase and possess potential antiamnestic activity. J Complement Integr Med. 9: Aricle 23. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023564 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Pande V V, Dubey S. 2009. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Sphaeranthus indicus on atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Int J Green Pharm. 3:159-61. URL: http://www.greenpharmacy.info/text.asp?2009/3/2/159/54911 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Prabhu, K. S., et al. 2008. Antidiabetic properties of the alcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in streptozotocin-nicotinamide diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 60(7): 909-16. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549678 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Ramachandran, S., et al. 2011. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Pii: 571721. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20953435 (accessed 03/19/2013).

Schneider, R. H., et al. 2002. Disease prevention and health promotion in the aging with a traditional system of natural medicine – Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). J Aging Health. 14(1): 57-78. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2211377/ (accessed 03/19/2013).

Sharma, R. K., Patki, P. S. 2010. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of an Ayurvedic formulation (GlucoCare capsules) in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ayurvedic Integr Med. 1 (1): 45-51. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3149392/ (accessed 03/19/2013).

Shirwaikar, A., et al. 2006. In vitro antioxidant studies of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn). Indian J Exp Biol. 44 (12): 993-6. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17176673 (accessed 03/19/2013.

Srinivasan, K. K., et al. 2008. Effect of Sphaeranthus indicus on gentamicin induced acute renal failure in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 40(Suppl 2, #123): S66–S91. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3086144/ (accessed 03/19/2013).

Stern, J.S., et al. 2012. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management. Obesity. Epub ahead of print. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20211/abstract (accessed 04/16/2013).

Garcinia mangostana

Bumrungpert, A., Et al. 2010. Xanthones from mangosteen inhibit inflammation in human macrophages and in human adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. J Nutr. 140(4): 842-7. URL (abract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181789 (accessed 04/23/2013).

Bumrungpert, A., et al. 2009. Xanthones from Mangosteen Prevent Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Primary Cultures of Human Adipocytes. The Journal of Nutrition. 139 (6) 1185-1191. URL (abstract only): http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/6/1185.short (accessed 3/26/2013).

Chomnawang, M.T., et al. 2007. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Fitoterapia. 78(6): 401-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644272 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Devalaraja, S., et al. 2011. Exotic fruits as therapeutic complements for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Food Research International. 44 (7): 1856-1865. URL (abstract only): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996911002250 (accessed 3/26/2013).

Heymsfield, S.B., et al. 1998. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 280(18): 1596-600. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9820262 (accessed 04/16/2013).

Jena, B.S., et al. 2002. Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia. J Agric Food Chem. 50(1):10-22. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11754536 (accessed 04/16/2013).

Jiang, H. Z., et al. 2010. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 20(20): 6045-47. URL (abstract only): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X10011844 (accessed 03/20/2013).

Jujun, P., et al. 2008. Acute and Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study of Garcinia manostana Linn. Rind Extract. J. Nat. Sci. 7(2): 199-208. URL: http://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/Acute%20and%20repeated%20dose%2028-day%20oral%20toxicity%20study%20of%20garcinia%20mangostana%20linn.%20rind%20extract.pdf (accessed 3/26/2013).

Lau, F.C., et al. 2011. Efficacy and tolerability of Meratrim – a novel formulation for weight management: Results from two, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies. Presented 10/3/2011 at the 29th Annual Obesity Society Annual Meeting. Poster number 590-P.

Lau, C.F., et al. 2011. Efficacy and tolerability of Merastin™ - a novel herbal formulation for weight management: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. FASEB J. 25: (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 601.9. Presented at Experimental Biology 2011, Washington, DC, April 10,2011 – Program No.601.9, Poster A278. URL (abstract): http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/25/1_MeetingAbstracts/601.9 (accessed 04/16/2013).

Leonhardt, M. & Langhans, W. 2002. Hydroxycitrate has long-term effects on feeding behavior, body weight regain and metabolism after body weight loss in male rats. J Nutr. 132(7): 1977-82. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12097679 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Leontowicz, H., et al. 2006. Bioactive properties of Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) and Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and their influence on plasma lipid profile and antioxidant activity in rats fed cholesterol. European Food Research and Technology. 223(5): 697-703. URL (abstract only): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00217-006-0255-7?LI=true# (accessed 03/20/2013).

Loo, A.E. & Huang, D. 2007. Assay-guided fractionation study of alpha-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana pericarp. J Agric Food Chem. 55(24): 9805-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17960880 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Manaharan, T., et al. 2012. Tropical Plant Extracts as Potential Antihyperglycemic Agents. Molecules. 17(5): 5915-5923. URL: http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/17/5/5915 (accessed 3/26/2013).

Mattes, R.D. & Bormann, L. 2000.0 Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetite variables. Physiol Behav. 71(1-2):87-94. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11134690 (accessed 04/16/2013).

Moongkarndi, P., et al. 2004. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 90(1): 161-6. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14698525 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Ngawhirunpat, T., et al. 2010. Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of different solvent extracts and their phenolic constituents from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Pharm Biol. 48(1): 55-62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645756 (accessed 04/23/2013).

Pedraza-Chaverri, J., et al. 2008. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). Food Chem Toxicol. 46(10): 3227-39. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725264 (accessed 03/20/2013).

Preuss, H.G., et al. 2004. Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 6(3):171-80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15056124?dopt=Abstract (accessed 04/16/2013).

Rao, R.N. & Sakariah, K.K. 1988. Lipid-lowering and antiobesity effect of (--) – hydroxycitric acid. Nutrition Research. 8(2): 209-212. URL (abstract): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531788800241 (04/24/2013).

Ryu, H. W., et al. 2011. Alpha-glucosidase inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry. 72 (17): 2148-2154. URL (abstract only): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942211003736 (accessed 3/26/2013).

Stern, J.S., et al. 2012. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management. Obesity. Epub ahead of print. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20211/abstract (accessed 04/16/2013).

Tang, Y.P., et al. 2009. Effect of a mangosteen dietary supplement on human immune function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Med Food. 12(4): 755-63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19697997

Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. & Kovacs, E.M.R. The effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on energy intake and satiety in overweight humans. International Journal of Obesity. 26: 870-872. URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12097679 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Williams, P., et al. 1995. Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res. 23(2): 175-84. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7581813 (accessed 04/24/2013).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry. 104(1): 176-81. URL (abstract only): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030881460600882X (accessed 03/20/2013).

Zarena, A. S., Sankar, K. U. 2009. A study of antioxidant properties from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 8(1): 23-34. URL: http://www.food.actapol.net/pub/3_1_2009.pdf (accessed 03/20/2013).

Green Tea Extract

Brown, A., et al. 2011. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: A randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br. J. Nutr. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736785 (accessed 10.21.2011).

Jeukendrup, A., & Randell, R. 2011. Fat burners: Nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes. Rev., 12 (10), 841-851. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951331 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Sae-tan, S., et al. 2011. Weight control and prevention of metabolic syndrome by green tea. Pharmacol. Res., 64 (2), 146-154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21193040 (accessed 10.21.2011).

Reinbach, H., et al. 2009. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance. Clin. Nutr., 28 (3), 260-265. URL (abstract): http://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(09)00023-5/fulltext (accessed 04.02.2013).

Bose, M., et al. 2008. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. J. Nutr., 138 (9), 1677-83. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/138/9/1677.long (accessed 10.21.2011).

Boschmann M and Thielecke F. 2007. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 26(4):389S-395S. URL: http://www.jacn.org/content/26/4/389S.full?sid=2ff39e8c-0b65-441b-977b-60a30cb3b729 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Belza A, Jessen AB. 2005. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 9(6):733-41. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15870822 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Kovacs, E., et al. 2004. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br. J. Nutr. 91, 431–437. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15005829 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Nagao, T., et al. 2005. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:122–9. URL: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/1/122.long (accessed 04.02.2013).

Rumpler W., et al. 2001. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr. 2001;131:2848–52. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/11/2848.long (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(6):1040-5. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10584049 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Dulloo AG et al. 2000. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24(2):252-8. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10702779 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Anuradha, B. & Varalakshmi, P. 199. Activities of glucose-metabolizing enzymes in experimental neurotoxic models with lipoate as an alleviator. J Appl Toxicol. 19(6):405-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547622 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Arivazhagan, P., et al. 2001 Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial enzymes in aged rats. Chem Biol Interact. 138(2): 189-98. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11672700 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Butler, J.A., et al. 2009. Lipoic acid improves hypertriglyceridemia by stimulating triacylglycerol clearance and downregulating liver triacylglycerol secretion. Arch Biochem Biophys. 485(1):63-71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19232511 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Chen, W.L., et al. 2012. Alpha-lipoic acid regulates lipid metabolism through induction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia. 55(6):1824-35. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456698 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Cheng, P.Y., et al. 2011. Reciprocal effects of alpha-lipoic acid on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity in obesity induced by ovariectomy in rats. Menopause. 18(9): 1010-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505371 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Femiano, F., et al. 2004. Burning Mouth Syndrome: open trial of psychotherapy alone, medication with alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid), and combination therapy. Med Oral. 9(1):8-13. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14704612 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Gupte, A.A., et al. 2009. Lipoic acid increases heat shock protein expression and inhibits stress kinase activation to improve insulin signaling in skeletal muscle from high-fat-fed rats. J Appl Physiol. 106(4):1425-34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19179648 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Kim, M. S., et al. 2004. Anti-obesity effects of alpha-lipoic acid mediated by suppression of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase. Nat Med. 10(7): 727-33. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15195087 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Koh, E. H., et al. 2011. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med. 124(1): 85.e1-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21187189 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Konrad, T., et al. 1999. Alpha-Lipoic acid in treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 22(2):280-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10333946 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Lee, W.J., et al. 2005. Alpha-lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 332(3): 885-91. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913551 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Lee, W. J., et al. 2005. Obesity: The role of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in body weight regulation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 37(11):2254-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16085448 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Lee, W.J., et al. 2005. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.25(12):2488-94. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16224049 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Mantovani, G., et al. 2006. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 15(5): 1030-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702388 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Marshall, A.W., et al. Treatment of alcohol-related liver disease with thioctic acid: a six month randomized double-blind trial. Gut. 23(12): 1088-93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6129179 (accessed 04.11.2013).

McNeilly, A.M., et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids Health Dis. 10:217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107734 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Mijnhout, G.S., et al. 2010. Alpha lipoic acid: a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes?. Neth J Med.68(4): 158-62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20421656 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Muthuswamy, A.D., et al. 2006. Oxidative stress-mediated macromolecular damage and dwindle in antioxidant status in aged rat brain regions: role of L-carnitine and DL-alpha lipoic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 368(1): 84-92. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16480704 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Nagamatsu, M., et al. 1995. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 18(8): 1160-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7587852 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Packer, L., et al. 1995. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 19(2): 227-250. URL (abstract): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)00017-R (accessed 04.15.2013).

Park, K.G., et al. 2008. Alpha-lipoic acid decreases hepatic lipogenesis through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent pathways. Hepatology. 48(5): 1477-86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18972440 (accessed 04.10.2013).

Pershadsingh, H.A. 2007. Alpha-lipoic acid: Physiologic mechanisms and indications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 16(3): 291-302. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17302524 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Ramos, L.F., et al. 2011. Effects of combination tocopherols and alpha lipoic acid therapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 21(3): 211-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185738 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Saraswathi, R. & Devaraj, S. N. 2013. Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle impairs mitochrondrial function in alloxan induced diabetic rats: Role of alpha lipoic acid. Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210523912000499 (accessed 04.15.2013).

Wiznitzer, A., et al. 1999. Lipoic acid prevention of neural tube defects in offspring of rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 180(1 Pt 1): 188-93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9914602 (accessed 04.08.2013).

Xiao, C., et al. 2011. Short-term oral alpha-lipoic acid does not prevent lipid-induced dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in obese and overweight nondiabetic men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 301(4): E736-41. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21750266 (accessed 04.11.2013).

Zembron-Lacny, A., et al. 2009. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. 60(2): 139-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19617657 (accessed 04.11.2013).


Arenas, J., et al. 1991. Carnitine in muscle, serum, and urine of nonprofessional athletes: effects of physical exercise, training and L-carnitine administration. Muscle Nerve. 14:598–604. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1922166 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Benvenga, S. 2005. Effects of L-carnitine on thyroid hormone metabolism and on physical exercise tolerance. Horm. Metab. Res., 37 (9), 566-571. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16175496 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Bremer, J. 1990. The role of carnitine in intracellular metabolism. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 28(5):297–301. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2199593 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Bremer, J. 1983. Carnitine – metabolism and functions. Physiol Rev. 63(4):1420-1480. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6361812 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Guzman-Guillen, R., et al. 2013. The protective role of l-carnitine against cylindrospermopsin-induced oxidative stress in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquat Toxicol. 132-133C:141-150. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23501490 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Ho, J.Y., et al. 2010. L-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metab 59:1190–1199. URL (abstract only): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045157 (accessed 04.02.2013).

Kraemer, W., et al. 2008. L-carnitine supplementation: influence upon physiological function. Curr. Sports Med. Rep., 7 (4), 218-223. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607224 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Kraemer, W.J., et al. 2006. Androgenic Responses to Resistance Exercise: Effects of Feeding and L-Carnitine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38(7):1288-1296 URL(abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826026 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Kraemer, W.J., et al. 2005. L-Carnitine Supplementation: A New Paradigm for its Role in Exercise. Chemical Monthly. 136:1383–1390. URL (abstract): http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00706-005-0322-y#page-1 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Kraemer, W.J., et al. 2003. The effects of L-carnitine l-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 17(3):455–462. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12930169 (accessed 04.03.2013).

LeBlanc, P.J., et al. 2004. Effects of 7 wk of endurance training on human skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol. 97:2148–2153. URL: http://jap.physiology.org/content/97/6/2148.full (accessed 04.03.2013).

Li, J. & Yu, X.Y., 2012. [Effects of exogenous carnitine on function of respiratory chain and antioxidant capacity in mitochondria of myocardium after exhaustive running in rats]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonggui Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 28(5):405-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252290 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Nüesch, R., et al. 1999. Plasma and urine carnitine concentrations in well-trained athletes at rest and after exercise. Influence of L-carnitine intake. Drugs Exptl Clin Res 25(4):167–17. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10442273 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Pekala, J., et al. 2011. L-Carnitine — metabolic functions and meaning in humans’ life. Curr. Drug Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21561431 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Spiering, B.A., et al. 2008. Effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on muscle oxygenation responses to resistance exercise. J. Strength Cond Res. 22(4):1130–1135 URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18545197 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Spiering, B.A., et al. 2007. Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of l-carnitine l-tartrate. J Strength Cond Res. 21(1):259–264. URL (abstract): http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/2007/02000/Responses_of_Criterion_Variables_to_Different.46.aspx (accessed 04.03.2013).

Steiber, A., et al. 2004. Carnitine: A nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective. Mol Aspects Med. 25 (5-6):455–473. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15363636 (accessed 04.03.2013).

van Loon, L.J.C., et al. 2001. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol. 536 (1): 295–304. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2278845/ (accessed 04.03.2013).

Volek, J.S., et al. 2008. Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults. Am J Cardiol. 102 (10):1413–1417. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18993165 (accessed 04.03.2013).

Volek, J.S., et al. 2002. L-carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 282:E474 – E482. URL: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/282/2/E474.full (accessed 04.03.2013).

Wall, B.T., et al. 2011. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol 589(4):963–973. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060373/ (accessed 04.02.2013).

Zambrano,S., et al. 2012. The renoprotective effect of L-carnitine in hypertensive rats is mediated by modulation of oxidative stress-related gene expression. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Dec 6 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223967 (accessed 04.03.2013).


Our WheySational is formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of WheySational.

Phaseolus vulgaris (white kidney bean)

Dominika, S., et al. 2011. The study on the impact of glycated pea proteins on human intestinal bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 145 (1), 267-272. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276631 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Geraedts, M., et al. 2011. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects. PLoS One, 6 (9), e24878. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0024878 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Häberer, D., et al. 2011. Intragastric infusion of pea-protein hydrolysate reduces test-meal size in rats more than pea protein. Physiol. Behav., 104 (5), 1041–1047. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21763707 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Li, H., et al. 2011. Blood pressure lowering effect of a pea protein hydrolysate in hypertensive rats and humans. J. Ag. Food Chem., 59 (18), 9854–9860. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21854068 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Marinangeli, C., & Jones, P. 2011. Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects. Br. J. Nutr., 105 (1), 110-117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20807459 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Ndiaye, F., et al. 2011. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds. Eur. J. Nutr. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21442413 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Geraedts, M., et al. 2010. Release of satiety hormones in response to specific dietary proteins is different between human and murine small intestinal mucosa. Ann. Nutr. Metab., 56 (4), 308–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20530962 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Rigamonti, E., et al. 2010. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 54 (Suppl. 1), S24-S30. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20077421 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Swiatecka, D., et al. 2010. Impact of glycated pea proteins on the activity of free-swimming and immobilised bacteria. J. Sci. Food Agric., 90 (11), 1837-1845. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20549652 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Diepvens, K., et al. 2008. Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.), 32, 510–518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18345020 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Spielmann, J., et al. 2008. Dietary pea protein stimulates bile acid excretion and lowers hepatic cholesterol concentration in rats. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl)., 92 (6), 683-693. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19012614 (accessed 10.18.2011).

X Whelan, K., et al. 2006. Appetite during consumption of enteral formula as a sole source of nutrition: The effect of supplementing pea-fibre and fructo-oligosaccharides. Br. J. Nutr., 96 (2), 350-356. URL: http://www.limnology-journal.org/download.php?file=%2FBJN%2FBJN96_02%2FS0007114506002133a.pdf&code=d63461b479aa85362cf84720c13bb8d5 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Whey protein

Acheson, K., et al. 2011. Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 93 (3), 525-534. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228266 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Baer, D., et al. 2011. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults. J. Nutr., 141 (8), 1489-1494. URL (abstract): http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2011/06/15/jn.111.139840.abstract (accessed 10.25.2011).

Geraedts, M., et al. 2011. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects. PLoS One, 6 (9), e24878. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0024878 (accessed 10.18.2011).

Graf, S., et al. 2011. Effects of whey protein supplements on metabolism: Evidence from human intervention studies. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 14 (6), 569-580. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21912246 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Josse, A., et al. 2011. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet-and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J. Nutr., 141 (8), 1626–1634. URL: xxxxxxxxx (accessed 10.25.2011).

Pal, S., et al. 2010. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br. J. Nutr., 104 (5), 716-723. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20377924 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Walker, T., et al. 2010. The influence of 8 weeks of whey-protein and leucine supplementation on physical and cognitive performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 20 (5), 409-417. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20975109 (accessed 11.09.2010).

Hayes, A., & Crib P. 2008. Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 11 (1), 40-44. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090657 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Katsanos, C., et al. 2008. Whey protein ingestion in elderly persons results in greater muscle protein accrual than ingestion of its constituent essential amino acid content. Nutr Res., 28 (10), 651-658. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2612691/?tool=pubmed (accessed 10.25.2011).

Wyatt, H., et al. 2008. Weight loss in a community initiative that promotes decreased energy intake and increased physical activity and dairy consumption: Calcium Weighs-In. J. Phys. Act. Health, 5 (1), 28-44. URL (abstract): xxxxxxxxxx (accessed 10.25.2011).

Hollis, J., & Mattes, R. 2007. Effect of increased dairy consumption on appetitive ratings and food intake. Obesity, 15 (6), 1520-1526. Erratum in: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Oct;15(10):2520. URL (abstract): xxxxxxxxxxxxx (accessed 10.25.2011).

Bowen, J., et al. 2006. Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 91 (8), 2913–2919. URL: (abstract): xxxxxxxxxxxxx (accessed 10.25.2011).

Burton-Freedom, B. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is not critical to whey-induced satiety, but may have a unique role in energy intake regulation through cholecystokinin (CCK). Physiol. Behav., 93 (1-2), 379-387. URL (abstract): xxxxxxxxxxxxx (accessed 10.25.2011).

Crib P., et al. 2006. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 16 (5), 494-509. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090657 (accessed 10.25.2011).

Bowen, J., et al. 2006. Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 91 (8), 2913-2919. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/91/8/2913.long (accessed 10.18.2011).

Phillips, S., et al. 2005. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24 (2), 134S-139S. URL: http://www.jacn.org/content/24/2/134S.long (accessed 10.25.2011).

Dangin, M., et al. 2003. The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humans. J. Physiol., 549, 635–644. URL: http://jp.physoc.org/content/549/2/635.full (accessed 10.25.2011).

Dangin, M., et al. 2001. The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 280 (2), E340–E348. URL: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/280/2/E340.full (accessed 10.25.2011).

Guar gum

Lyly, M., et al. 2009. Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety. Eur. J. Nutr., 48 (4), 251-258. URL (abstract): x (accessed 10.25.2011).