Better Bones Basics

Our Better Bones Basics is formulated by Dr. Susan E. Brown, PhD, medical anthropologist and osteoporosis expert, using the latest nutritional and medical science for women’s bone health. For information on the clinical basis for using Better Bones Basics, click on each individual nutrient below to review a list of pertinent studies and articles, arranged in order of recency.


Our Omega-3s is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Omega-3s.

Bays, H. 2007. Safety considerations with omega-3 fatty acid therapy. Am. J. Cardiol., 99 (6A), 35C–43C.

Bourre, J. 2007. Dietary omega–3 fatty acids for women. Biomed. Pharmacother., 61 (3), 105–112.

Conklin, S., et al. 2007. Serum w-3 fatty acids are associated with variation in mood, personality and behavior in hypercholesterolemic community volunteers. Psych. Res., 152, 1–10.

Goldberg, R., & Katz, J. 2007. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain, 129, 210–223.

Nguyen, C., et al. 2007. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids decrease intraocular pressure with age by increasing aqueous outflow. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 48 (2), 756–762.

Natural Standard Monograph. 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. URL (limited access):

Townend, B., et al. 2007. Dietary macronutrient intake and five-year incident cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 143, 932–939.

Appleton, K., et al. 2006. Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: Systematic review of published trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1308–1316.

Black, H., & Rhodes, L. 2006. The potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cancer Detect. Prev., 30 (3), 224–232.

Creuzot, C., et al. 2006. [Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids.] J. Fr. Ophtalmol., 29 (8), 868–873.

Freeman, M., et al. 2006. Omega-3 fatty acids: Evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J. Clin. Psych., 67 (12), 1954–1967.

German, O., et al. 2006. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents apoptosis of retina photoreceptors by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. J. Neurochem., 98, 1507–1520.

Kamphuis, M., et al. 2006. Depression and cardiovascular mortality: A role for n-3 fatty acids? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1513–1517.

Kim, H-H., et al. 2006. Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo. J. Lipid Res., 47, 921–930.

Lamotte, M., et al. 2006. A multi-country health-economic evaluation of highly concentrated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 74–82.

Menéndez, J., et al. 2006. HER2 (erbB-2)-targeted effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), in breast cancer cells: The “fat features” of the “Mediterranean diet” as an “anti-HER2 cocktail”. Clin. Transl. Oncol., 8 (11), 812–820.

Nemets, H., et al. 2006. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: A controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 163 (6), 1098–1100.

Seddon, J., et al. 2006. Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration. The US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol., 124, 995–1001.

Severus, W. 2006. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 69–74.

Walzer, B., et al. 2006. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augments brachial artery dilation and blood flow during forearm contraction. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 97, 347–354.

Berbert, A., et al. 2005. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition, 21, 131–136.

Kim, H-H., et al. 2005. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J. Lipid Res., 46, 1712–1720.

Lerman, R. 2005. Essential fatty acids. In Textbook of Functional Medicine, ed. D. S. Jones & S. Quinn, pp. 420–433. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

Covington, M. 2004. Omega-3 fatty acids. Am. Fam. Phys., 70 (1), 133–140.

Iribarren, C., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young adults — the CARDIA study. Eur. J. Clinc. Nutr., 58, 24–31.

Saldeen, P., & Saldeen, T. 2004. Women and omega-3 fatty acids. Obstet. Gynecol., 59 (10), 722–730.

US FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2004. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA-823-R-04-005. URL:

Harris, W., et al. 2003. Cardiovascular disease and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 14 (1), 9–14.

Helland, I., et al. 2003. Maternal supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics, 111 (1), E39-E44.

Logan, A. 2003. Neurobehavioral aspects of omega-3 fatty acids: Possible mechanisms and therapeutic value in major depression. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (4), 410–425.

Zanarini, M., & Frankenburg, F. 2003. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 160, 167–169.

Bagga, D., et al. 2002. Long-chain n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. Nutr. Cancer, 42, 180–185.

Carrie, I., et al. 2002. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich phospholipid supplementation: Effect on behavior, learning ability, and retinal function in control and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient old mice. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (1):43–52.

Hu, F., et al. 2002. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA, 287 (14), 1815–1821.

Nestel, P. et al. 2002. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 326–330.

Chen, L., et al. 2000. Effect of stable fish oil on arterial thrombogenesis, platelet aggregation, and superoxide dismutase activity. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 35 (3), 502–505.

Curtis, C., et al. 2000. n-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (2), 721–724.

Stark, K., et al. 2000. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72, 389–394.

Yamada, T., et al. 2000. Atherosclerosis and w-3 fatty acids in the populations of a fishing village and a farming village in Japan. Atherosclerosis, 153, 469–481.

Austin, M., et al. 1998. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am. J. Cardiol., 81 (4A), 7B–12B.

Kruger, M., et al. 1998. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging [Milano], 10 (5), 385–394.

Berry, E. 1997. Dietary fatty acids in the management of diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66 (4 Suppl.), S991–S997.

Bruckner, G. 1997. Microcirculation, vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids: An overview. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 415, 195–208.

Katayama, Y. Effect of long-term administration of ethyl eicosapentate (EPA-E) on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Brain Res., 761 (2), 300–305.

Belluzzi, A., et al. 1996. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. NEJM, 3334 (24), 1557–1560.

Caygill, C., et al. 1996. Fat, fish oil and cancer. Br. J. Cancer, 74, 159–164.

Harel, Z., et al. 1996. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J. Obstet. Gynecol., 171 (4), 1335–1338.

Lau, C-S., et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil on plasma fibrinolysis in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol., 13 (1), 87–90.

Suzukawa, et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil fatty acids on low density lipoprotein size, oxidizability, and uptake by macrophages. J. Lipid Res., 36, 473–484.

Geusens, P., et al. 1994. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12–month, double-blind, controlled study. Arthritis Rheum., 37 (6), 824–829.

Kankaanpää, P., et al. 1993. Dietary fatty acids and allergy. Ann. Med., 31 (4), 282–287.

Escobar, S., et al. 1992. Topical fish oil in psoriasis — a controlled and blind study. Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 17 (3), 159–162.

Simopoulos, A. 1991. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 54 (3), 438–463.

Ellis, E., et al. 1990. Effect of fish oil n-3 fatty acids on cerebral microcirculation. Am. J. Physiol., 258 (6 Pt. 2), H1780–H1785.

Haglund, O., et al. 1990. Effects of a new fluid fish oil concentrate, ESKIMO-3, on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure. J. Intern. Med., 227 (5), 347–353.

van der Temple, H., et al. 1990. Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 49, 76–80.

Black, K., et al. 1984. Eicosapentaenoic acid: Effect on brain prostaglandins, cerebral blood flow and edema in ischemic gerbils. Stroke, 15 (1), 65–69.